当代美国综合运输体系发展的经验与借鉴/

2019-05-11 07:12:30

综合 development Transportation 运输 transporting



交通运输是一种古老的生产实践活动,但大型交通运输却开始于近代。大型的交通运输最早是以水路运输为主,随着蒸汽机的发明出现了铁路运输,内燃机的出现,又形成了公路运输,随后是航空和管道运输。国家计委综合运输研究所研究员杨洪年讲:“交通运输是人们使用运输工具(如铁路、公路、车辆、船舶和飞机)作用于劳动对象(货物或旅客),进而改变劳动对象的地理位置的活动,或客在地理位置的转移。”其实,现代交通运输不论是满足旅客出行,还是货物的移动,都是在满足人们对交通运输的需要,而且它还关系着整个社会劳动生产率的提高和资金周转的加速。
现代交通运输系统即综合运输体体系是由铁路、公路、水运、航空和管道五种运输方式构成的立体化综合系统。各种运输方式相辅相成共同构成国家交通运输体系。
运输活动是生产活动:交通运输业按其生产活动的性质来讲,它是一个物质生产部门。运输生产活动是人们使用运输工具(如铁路、公路、车辆、船舶和飞机)作用于劳动对象(货物或旅客),进而改变劳动对象地理位置的活动,或旅客在地理位置的转移。现代交通运输系统的功能可以概括为:实现人流、物流的经济有序流动,满足社会生产和生活中多样化的运输需求,促进人类的活动空间和经济空间的形成和拓展。
交通运输业是国民经济的基础产业,国民经济要以较快速度发展,交通运输发展滞后的状况必须改变,因为交通运输对经济发展有着重要影响。第一交通运输与国民经济之间存在着密不可分的内在联系。第二交通运输是经济活动的基础,是经济发展的“先行官”。第三运输的发展会影响资源的配置和利用。要充分发挥市场机制在资源配置中的作用,通过资源的优化配置,达到提高经济效益,发展国民经济的目的。
现代化综合运输体系以满足信息化社会(知识经济社会)经济社会发展需求为目标;在功能上,受生产力发展水平,特别是技术发展水平的制约,现代综合运输在信息技术为核心的高新技术的支撑下,以挖掘运输方式内和运输方式间各环节的潜力,实现高效率,无缝衔接为主,强调各运输方式间的整合、集成和高效率协调现代交通运输业以实现人和物的空间位移为主要功能,是文明社会不可或缺的基础产业,是国民经济和社会发展的命脉。交通运输业概括为以下五个功能:经济功能;社会公益功能;宏观调控功能;国防功能。
当今的美国已拥有世界上最发达的综合交通运输系统。美国是19世纪的铁路王国,20世纪的汽车王国。美国的铁路与公路、水运和航空等组成了一个综合运输网,其任何一个港口都与铁路衔接,铁路在港口疏运中发挥不可替代的作用。公、铁、水及空联运大大提高了综合运输的效率和运送速度,通过联运,各种运输方式的优势得到了充分发挥。
美国高度发达的综合运输体系非常适应经济的发展。80年代后,随着资源与环境问题的日益突出交通运输发展的焦点开始转向可持续发展。区域内城市的发展产生了强大的先导和开拓作用。城市经济带动地区经济,促成全面性开发。交通运输与经济之间存在着密不可分的内在联系。美国就是最好的例子,交通运输是商品生产和交换得以实现的基础,是人类社会不断发展的重要因素。
美国综合运输体系发展的经验管理政策的科学化在20世纪80年代以前,美国政府及运输部对交通运输业的政策主要是资助、扶持,促使其迅速发展,其发展较多地依赖于政府行政机制的激励作用。运输市场化美国的铁路一直是私有的,其运输政策的调整主要着眼于减少对运输市场的政府干预。美国交通运输业各部门之间的竞争相当激烈。在美国发展早期,内河航运一枝独秀。19世纪中叶以后随着铁路的大规模修建,内河航运被排挤,铁路运输称雄一时。20世纪初公路运输悄然兴起,严重地冲击着铁路的发展,没有竞争就没有发展,可以说竞争促进了美国交通运输业的总体繁荣与发展。美国多式联运完成的运输量占运输系统的比例,运量占2%,周转量占8%,表明多式联运在长距离运输中发挥着优势作用,提高了竞争力。美国多式联运发展和它的经济很好的融为了一体。
美国作为当今世界综合运输体系最发达、最完善的国家。60年来,其建设现代综合运输体系的成功经验,对我国建设现代化综合运输体系具有指导意义。
我国80年代提出了建设综合运输大通道的理论,它包含两层含义:一是大通道概念,即重点建设关系到全国性交通大局的若干条主要运输通道;二是综合运输概念,即按照综合运输理论构筑包括铁路、公路、水路、航空、管道等多种运输方式组成的运输大通道。运输大通道的建设,实现了从根本上缓解以致最终解决交通运输“瓶颈”对国民经济和社会发展的制约。交通运输先行的设想得到了初步的有效实施。
我国综合运输体系再取得巨大的成就的同时也存在许多急需改进的问题,这些问题关系的我国现代综合运输体系的建立和社会主义现代化建设的发展。交通质量不能满足经济发展的需要;综合运输方式之间的结构性矛盾,不能满足经济发展需求;交通基础建设的整体功能落后,对人口的质量影响大;交通资源的利用率低,影响交通消费的提高。因此,交通业仍是许多省区经济发展的瓶颈。由于交通能力不足,技术落后,导致客货运输不畅、信息传递迟缓、失灵,阻碍了经济与社会的可持续发展。从我国和美国国家综合运输体系的比较得到的如下启示:建立国家综合运输体系是一项长期、复杂的系统工程。必须采取分步实施的策略。通过与美国综合运输体系的比较启示,我们提出如下策略建议:加速运输业市场化改革,尽快建立健全运输市场体系;非国有经济进入运输领域的改革;投融资体制改革;继续实施“科教兴交战略”,实现现代运输业的跨越式发展。
对我国综合运输体系发展展望:为适应我国社会主义现代化建设需要,今后一段时期我国交通运输业的发展,要继续扩大综合运输网规模,全面提高综合运输能力;要继续优化结构,包括总体运输结构和各种运输方式的内部结构,坚持合理配置运输资源,提高综合交通整体素质;要继续合理布局运输网,大力发展联运,特别是集装箱多式联运。采用新技术,提高综合运输体系现代化水平。
“十一五”期间,中国将继续实行积极的交通发展政策,以不断满足日益增长的运输需求为交通发展的政策目标,支持各种运输方式完成大发展过程,大幅度提升交通运输供给能力,解决网络结构层次性矛盾和缩小地区间发展差距,全面提高我国交通运输的机动性和通达性,逐步建立完善的综合交通运输体系,适应和促进全面建设小康社会目标的实现。同时,交通运输业将通过大力发展与改革,大幅度提高运输能力,基本缓解运输对经济增长的制约;通过加快交通现代化展,发挥综合运输的整体效能,变被动适应为主动引导,为国民经济和社会的快速发展提供有力支撑。




Traffic transportation is an ancient productive and practice activity, while transport of large scale, originally and mainly in the form of watering transport, was started in modern times. Highway transport formed with the appearance of gas engine, followed by airline and pipeline transport. Hongnian Yang, a researcher of the comprehensive transporting research center of National Planning Committee, said “Transportation is an activity that people use transporting tools (such as railway, highway, automobiles, ships and airplanes etc.) to affect labor objectivities (goods & passengers)and change their geographic locations, in other words , the transfer of the locations of passengers.” In fact, modern transportation both meets the needs of passengers and that of the transfer of geographic locations, which concerns about the improvement of labor productive efficiency at the social level and capital cycling.
Modern transporting system is a three-dimensional comprehensive system which is composed of five transporting forms, they are, railway, high way, water carriage, airlines and pipelines, which interacted with each other and jointly compromised National Transporting System.
Transporting activity is a productive activity: transporting industry is a material production sector in terms of the nature of it. Transportation is an activity that people use transporting tools (such as railway, highway, automobiles, ships and airplanes etc.) to affect labor objectivities (goods & passengers)and change their geographic locations, in other words, the transfer of the locations of passengers. The functions of the modern transporting system can be summarized as: realizing regular mobility of people and materials, meeting the various transporting demands in social production and daily life, as well as pushing the formation and development of human behavior space and economic space.
Transporting industry is a base industry in national economy and has a significant effect over its development. Backwardness of the development of transporting must be improved if national economy will maintain a relatively high-speed growth. First Transportation has a close inner connection with the national economy. Secondary transportation is the basis of economic activities and plays an important role in economic development. The development of the third transportation affects the allocation and utilization of resources. The role of market mechanism in resource allocation should be fully played to optimize the allocation of resources and improve the economic efficiency and reach the development targets of national economy.
Modernized comprehensive transporting system (MCTS), with the target of meeting the demands of economic and social development of information society (knowledge-based economy), is restricted by the level of productive development, especially technology. MCTS, based on the high and new tech centered on info-tech, with the functions of seeking for the potentials of different forms of transportation and high efficiency and density, emphasized on the integration of different forms and spatial transfer of people and materials. MCTS is a indispensable base industry in civilized society and vitals of national economy and social development. The five functions of transporting industry follow as: economic, public welfare, social, macro-control and defense functions.
United States is the most advanced country of CTS in nowadays. US acted as a kingdom of railway in 1800s and automobiles in 1900s. With a complex transporting net of railway, highway, water carriage and airlines, all the ports in USA are connected with railways and play an overwhelming role in port communication. The different transporting forms greatly improved the efficiency and speed of delivering and comprehensive transportation, and combined the advantages of them.
Highly advanced CTS in US was properly consistent with economic development. Since 1980s, with the emergency of the problems in resources and environment, the focus has been changed into sustainable development. Urban development in regions arises strong leading and exploring effects. Urban economy pushes forward the regional development and improves the all-round development. There is a close inner relationship between Transporting system and economy. The best example goes to US, where TS is fundamental in production and exchange of commodities and a crucial factor in the development of human society.
The scientific orientation of experience management policy on the development of CTS in US occurred in 1980s. Before that, the policy of US government and Transportation Department on the transporting industry mainly played in the form of subsidiary or aids. The development of TS largely depended on the active role of governmental administrating mechanism. In US, the railways are always owned by individuals, the adjustment of transporting policy mainly focused on the alleviation of government interference on transporting market. Different sectors in Transporting industry suffer intense competition. In early stage of development, inner water carriage was dominant. After 1950s, with the construction of railways in large scale, inner water carriage lines gave way to the railways. In 1900s, the upsurge of highway system seriously shocked the development of railways, as no development without competition, the competition of different transporting forms made America’s transporting industry prosperous and advanced. The multi-form transporting capacity accounts for total capacity by 2% and total circling capacity by 8%, which demonstrates that it has a priority in long-distance transportation and has already merged into the economy.
US is the most developed and advanced country in world comprehensive transporting system. In the past 60 years, the successful experience in building modernized CTS in US sheds light on the construction of modernized CTS in China.
In 1980s,a theory of building comprehensive transporting channels was proposed in China, which included two significances, one went to the concept of big channels, that is mainly construct key transporting channels which are critical in national transporting, the other went to the concept of CT, that is building multi-form transporting channels including railways, highways airlines and pipelines according to the theory of CT. The construction of transporting channels helps to and finally deals with the restrictions in national economy and social development and the “bottlenecks”. The hypothesis of transporting with priority was partly and efficiently implemented.
In China, the CTS has made great achievements and also met many problems to be covered urgently. These issues concerns about the construction of MCTS in our country and the development of socialism modernization. Transportation can’t satisfy the needs of economic development, with a structural conflict among the various transporting forms and the backwardness in all-round function of transporting infrastructure and low utilization rate of resources, all of which affects the improvement of transporting consumption. Therefore, transporting industry acts as the bottleneck of development in most provinces and regions. Because of the poor availability and backward technology, the lag of info delivering holds up economic and social sustainable development. Some implications can be concluded from the national CTS both in US and China: it is a long-term and hard project to build a NCTS. We have to take measures step by step to reach the goal. Some countermeasures are given as: the reform of the system of investment and financing, continuous efforts toward the strategy of rejuvenating the country through science and technology to achieve the high-speed development in transporting industry.
The prosperity toward the development of CTS in China goes to: in order to adapt to the needs of socialism modernized construction, in the coming period, the scale of transporting should be expanded to improve the comprehensive transporting capacity in the development of transporting industry; optimize the structure including overall transporting structure and inner structure of single transporting form, insist on allocate transporting resources effectively and increase the overall quality of comprehensive transportation; continuously and reasonably plan and locate the transporting net, with emphasis on the development over linkage transportation, especially multi-form transportation in the form of containers; introduce new technology and improve the modernization level of CTS.
In the period of the eleventh five-year plan, China will continuously implement active policy of transporting development to meet the increasing demands, support the various forms to achieve the whole process and largely improve the supplying capacity of transportation to handle the structural conflict and narrow the development gap among different regions; increase the mobility and availability of transportation across the country and improve the CTS to push forward the goal of constructing relatively-rich society in all-round sense.
In the period of the eleventh five-year plan, great achievements and reform will be accomplished in transporting industry, with an increase of transporting capacity and largely alleviation of the restrictions of transportation on the economic growth; though accelerating the development of transportation and full play of CT, shifting negative role to positive one, providing pillars to the swift development of national economy and society.