从受众需求角度探析信息产品的多样化/

2019-05-11 06:44:52

information 信息 products media 受众



在经济全球化的大背景下,随着我国社会主义市场经济的不断完善和全方位对外开放格局的形成,传媒业走进市场,已成为必由之路。尽管传媒总体上还处于政府的保护之中,但遵循市场运作规律、满足受众多层次需求,已经成为行业共识。不同媒介也都进行了大量的有益探索,例如电视媒介的频道专业化道路等。但是从目前的发展情况看,其实践效果仍存在弊端。
本文试图提出一个新的概念界定——信息产品的多样化,并试图运用新闻学、传播学、经济学等理论,来找寻实行信息产品多样化的理论依据,探索信息产品多样化的实现途径:挖掘信息内涵,形成自身特色,培育区域影响力,构建品牌效应。

一、信息产品多样化概念的提出及依据
本文认为,信息产品的多样化是指:传媒企业把生产的特殊的精神产品——信息产品,借助于媒介投放到市场,面向多层次的受众群体或根据受众的某种特定需求,从信息内容及形式上提供多样化的特定的信息与服务。这里所指的信息产品,是指传播媒介所生产出来的所有新闻作品、其他作品以及有关的信息产品的总称。
既然信息产品推向市场,就成为一种商品,就要遵循传媒市场的运作规律。以实现媒介市场的分化及定位。
首先,信息产品是商品,这是个不容争议的事实。所有传媒生产的信息产品——广播电视节目、报纸杂志栏目等,都包含着信息劳动,因此都是商品。但信息商品与物质商品又有区别,人们消费信息产品绝不是消费这一实物,而是享用实物传递给我们的信息。信息产品的商品性能给媒体带来经济效益,但传媒业在追求经济效益的同时,更应注重社会效益。
其次,传媒市场日益出现细分化趋势。传媒市场由报刊市场、电视市场和广告市场等组成。媒介经营者按照受众动机、收受习惯或地域特征等差异,把整体新闻市场划分为不同的市场,导致大众传播进入分众化传播时代。
再次,传媒分众化使信息产品的多样化成为必然趋势。传媒市场分众化使得任何一家媒介在关注广大受众普遍需求的同时,越来越重视不同受众的需求和受众不同的需求,从而促使传媒生产的信息产品呈现出日趋多样化的格局,以满足受众多样化的需求。在分众化的探索过程中,出现了诸如频道专业化等发展方向,但实践结果不容乐观。

二、受众需求是信息产品多样化的根本动因
传媒市场自形成以来,就有其特殊的运作规律,其以提供传媒产品的方式满足消费者的需要,所以传媒运作的第一要义就是深入研究受众需求。
首先要正确认识受众需求与媒介的关系。媒介活动不是以受众为中心,而是为受众服务,尽可能满足公众的各种需要。没有受众,媒介就失去了存在的意义;没有媒介,受众也不会出现,受众与新闻媒介始终处在矛盾的统一体中。由于知识结构、文化素养、年龄阶段、个人兴趣爱好等等差异,加上地区不同,因而不同层面、不同地区的受众的需求目的存在着明显的差异性。受众这种受社会诸多因素的影响,决定了受众对新闻传播的需求是多种多样的。
其次要明确受众需求要求实现信息产品的多样化。人类一切活动的基础,说到底是满足各种需求。经济学意义上对商品的需求是物质层面的需求,而传播学意义上的受众需求是心理、文化、价值体系等精神层面的需求,受众需求又可分为:
1、受众的心理需求。在大众传播活动中,受众的需要说到底是一种精神的需要,它包括信息的需要、社会化的需要、调节生活的需要。不同的受众群体会有不同的需求。不同的受众群体,由于其文化水平、年龄结构、生活环境等方面的不同,会出现对媒体、传播内容的不同选择和理解。
2、受众的媒介消费需求。媒介市场与受众的消费需求是相辅相成的。大众传播媒介作为信息服务业要生存发展就必须善于发现、了解和研究消费者的偏好,进而发现和了解媒介市场消费需求的大小。消费者偏好对于传媒经济市场的确立非常重要。
3、这种需求又存在变数。面对日益多样化、多元化、复杂化的传媒市场需求,传媒必须考虑影响受众需求的多种变数。不同类型的传媒受众市场,细分的因素也有所不同。在受众市场上影响受众购买行为的因素众多,可以把这些因素归纳为四类:地理变数、人口变数、心理变数、行为变数。
另外,消费结构嬗变引起的需求变化也不容忽视。

三、信息产品多样化的实现途径探索
面对竞争激烈的市场和日益理性的受众,媒体想要在竞争中立于不败之地,就必须吸引到更多的受众注意力,必须培养出自己与众不同的核心竞争力。因此,媒介应力求从内涵到形式、从内部策划到外部环境等多方面努力实现信息产品的多样化。
1、体现内涵,提升信息产品深层价值。大量风格接近、形式相仿、内容雷同的信息产品充斥着传媒市场,重复信息是不会引起受众注意的,打时间战其实也无多大意义。因此,媒体增强竞争力,需要在开拓其信息广度的同时,进而对信息深度进行挖掘和整理。
2、凸显特色,增强信息产品区域影响力。要形成影响力的一个重要手段就是特色,中外传媒业实践显示,媒介的区域化发展能够很好地凸显特色。利用区域影响力来发展媒介自身,在分众化市场上形成自己的特色,以实现信息产品的多样化,这不仅能为媒体创造更大的市场发展空间,更能成为媒体赢利的高起点。
3、树立品牌,培育信息产品受众市场。在信息爆炸、媒体竞争激烈的生存环境中,把自己的媒体培养成为品牌媒体,无疑有利于媒体竞争实力的积累和长远发展。传媒品牌影响力的多寡直接决定着传播的效果,只有打造足够强大的优质品牌,才能具有强大的传播影响力,才能抢占受众市场,为信息产品多样化的实现提供良好的外部环境。
因此,本文提出“信息产品的多样化”概念,试图证明这种新理念的合理性,并探索了信息产品多样化的实现途径,就是力求找寻一种比专业化道路更为合理的分众化实现方式,以满足不断增长和变化的受众需求。当然,信息产品的多样化只是从理论角度做的一个设想,最终能否实现,还要进行切实的论证。



The deepening background of the economic globalization gives the media industry a greater access to the market. Though the media are still under the protection of the government, abiding by the operating regulations and satisfying audience's demand have already become the common sense of the industry. Different media has already taken on a large amount of beneficial explorations, but judging from the present development situation, its result still has some drawbacks.
This text attempts to pose a new concept: information products diversity. Theories such as journalism, dissemination, economics, etc., will be used to find out the theoretical foundations, and to explore the practical way of diversifying the information products.

Posing the concepts of information products diversity and offering the theoretical foundations. Since the information products are introduced to the market, they must follow the operating regulations of the media market, in order to realize the division and localization of the media market.
First of all, the information products are the goods, which is unquestionable. But information goods are differ from material goods, consuming information products is not consuming the definite material, but enjoying the information that the material transmits to us. Commerciality of the information products brings the media benefits.
Secondly, the subsection trends to appear day by day on the media market. The media market is constituted by market of newspapers, periodicals, TV and advertisings, etc. Operators divide media markets into different ones according to the public habit or rationality.
Moreover, media now tends to vary the information which enables the information products diversity becoming the inexorable trend. While paying close attention to public general demands, different demand also attracts more and more attention, leads to a diversified pattern of media products.

Audience's demand is the basic motive of information products diversity. Since the media market takes form, it’s already had its special operating regulations: meeting demands of consumer by offering media products. So its primary operation is to take justice to further investigation of audience's demand.
Firstly, we should realize the relation between audience's demand and media. Without audiences, media will become meaningless; and without media, audiences will not appear either. So audiences and media are in the entity of the contradiction all the time. Because knowledge structure, artistic appreciation, age stage and personal interests vary, the demands of audience in different stage or region have obvious differences. The audience is influenced by a great deal of factors which made their demand varies.
Secondly, audience's demand asks for the diversification of the information products. The basic activities of human being are actually satisfying their demand. Demanding for the goods in economic sense is demanding for material, while on the communication theories point of view, it means demanding of spiritual aspects, such as psychology, culture, value system. Audience's demand can be divided into psychological need and media consumption demands. We should realize that these demands have parameters.

Explore a practical way of information products diversify. In the face of the highly competitive market and rational public day by day, if the media wants to establish in an unassailable position in the competition, it must turns out its own competitive strength.
1. To reflect intension and promote the deep value of the information products. A large number of similar forms of products are flooding the media market. So, the only way to strengthen the competitiveness is to opening up its broadness while excavating its depth.
2. To stand out the characteristic, strengthen the regional influence of the information products. One important means to form influence is characteristic, Chinese and foreign media industry practice reveal that the area development of media will excel at characteristics.
3. To establish brands and cultivate audience's market of the information products. Under the circumstance of information explosion, turning own media into high-quality brands is definitely beneficial to competitive strength and long-term development.
So, this text puts forward a concept of “information products diversity ", attempts to prove the rationality of such new idea, and explores ways to approaching it, in order to meet the increasing and changing audience's demand. Of course, the diversification of the information products is an assumption based on theory, whether it could finally be achieved needs to carry on practical demonstration.