日美安保体制的演变——从安全机制角度的分析/

2019-05-10 22:38:27

security Japanese American Japan 安保



日美安保体制在战后日美关系史上占据着非常重要的地位,构成了日美关系的基石,是日美同盟关系赖以存在的支柱和基础。
日美安保体制形成于20世纪50年代,迄今已延续了半个世纪之久。日美安保体制历经20世纪60年代初的修改,和20世纪90年代中期的“重新定义”,其规则与规定得到不断完善,双边合作的领域、内容及地域范围不断扩大,合作的层次得到提高;进而成为冷战结束后,唯一继续保持冷战时期的形态并且得到空前强化的双边安全机制。在国际形势发生巨大变化的今天,这一体制不但没有松动削弱,反而得到了加强。这不能不引起世人的强烈关注。
本文从分析安全机制的概念入手,认为所谓日美安保体制就是存在于日美之间的双边安全机制,进而试图在前人研究的基础上,从安全机制角度对日美安保体制的建立,发展和强化作一系统梳理。
首先,文章阐述了日美安保体制的建立。本文首先根据国外专家对安全机制形成条件的研究,概括出促使安全机制形成的三个主要因素。并结合日美安保体制建立之时的冷战背景,分析了日美安保体制形成的三个历史条件:第一,美国通过第二次世界大战将日本这个争霸远东地区的宿敌彻底击败,并凭借战后确立的霸权完全控制了日本,日美安保体制正是在美国对日本的霸权主导下建立的;第二,美国和日本在冷战体制下基于切身利益而相互需要,这成为日美安保体制建立的动机;第三,媾和使日本和美国在安全问题上实现了利益汇合,这是日美安保体制最终得以确立的基础。
形成于20世纪50年代的日美安保体制,是以美苏两极对抗为主要特征的冷战格局的产物。通过建立双边安全机制,日本获得了美国的安全保障,美国则实现了继续在日本驻军和保有军事基地的合法权利,并达到了利用日本对以苏联为首的社会主义阵营实施遏制政策的目的。该机制规定了美国和日本在安全合作上的权利和义务,将日本和美国的安全合作制度化。此外,日美安保体制确定了日美关系的性质和两国交往的行为规范,成为日美两国之间政治和外交的基本框架。安保体制本身存在着很大的不平等性,但日本相信通过这种让步可以换得美国对日本国家安全的保障,这是安全机制的应有之义。
其次,文章论述了日美安保体制的修改。安全机制并非僵化不变,随着参与国实力对比和国内外形势的变化,安全机制也将发生相应的演变。作为日美双边安全机制的日美安保体制亦是如此。由于日美安保体制的不平等性,严重损害了日本的主权,从机制内部威胁到了安保体制的稳定。因此当日本经济实力增强、国际地位提高、防卫能力有所恢复之后,日本便要求与其实力地位相适应的权利与义务。基于日美安保体制的重要性,美国不得不正视日本实力的恢复,并于20世纪60年代初,同日本一道对安保体制进行了修改。此次修改删除了《日美安保条约》中损害日本主权的不平等条款,明确了美国对日本的防卫义务,在一定程度上提高了日本对美国的对等地位。日美双方还将合作扩大到经济领域,并且规定了新安保条约的有效期和存废手续。
此次修改并没有触及到日美安保体制的实质内容,但在一定程度上满足了日本提高对美国平等地位的要求,使机制内的各要素更加平衡,从而使日美安保体制更加现实有效,更具稳定性。
再次,文章论述了日美安保体制的重新定义与转型。安全机制的存在与演变依赖于国际形势的变化,尤其是双方对国际形势变化对各自国家安全的影响的认识。20世纪90年代初期,苏联解体,冷战结束,日美安保体制迅即失去了存在的基础。与此同时,冷战结束对日美两国国内政策和亚太地区局势的影响,以及日本的经济强国地位和政治抱负都使日美两国国内对安保体制的继续存在提出了置疑。显然,在国际国内各种形势发生巨变的情况下,日美安保体制原来的合作机制已不能完全反映双方的真实地位和权益,不足以确保双方的利益安全。
在此历史转折点上,日美安保体制充分体现了弹性十足的特点。美国和日本经过五年漫长的安全对话,最终一致认为日美安保体制的存在一如既往对日美两国具有重要的意义,并将成为21世纪亚太地区的安全支柱。于是日美两国根据冷战后世界格局的变化,为使日美安保体制适应冷战后的需要,对其进行了重新定义,并使其顺利转型。重新定义后的日美安保体制,重新确认了双边军事合作的意义,扩大了军事合作的内容和地域范围,提高了合作的层次,使之重新具有了稳定性;进而成为冷战结束后,唯一得到空前强化的双边安全机制。日美安保体制由此发生了实质性变化,其战略意图已经从遏制以苏联为首的社会主义阵营的“扩张”,转向应对亚太地区安全事态,实现日本和美国在亚太地区的霸权地位。
文章通过对日美安保体制演变的梳理,注意到日美两国的安全利益不断通过该机制进行调整和汇聚,由此日美之间建立起了排他性的双边安全机制。这一安全机制在各个阶段都充分满足了日美两国的安全要求,并历经修订不断得到强化,具有相当的稳定性和弹性。经过调整之后的日美安保体制,在全球化日益加快发展的今天,将会有一个相当长的稳定发展时期。



Japanese-American security system occupies a very important position in the post-war relations between Japan and the United States. It lays the cornerstone of relations between Japan and the United States and is the pillar and foundation of the U.S.-Japan alliance.
Japanese-American security system shaped in the early 1950's, and has lasted for half a century so far. Through the modification in the early 1960s and the re-definition in the mid-1990s, the rules and regulations of this system has been constantly improved, with the fields and the involved geographical scope of the bilateral cooperation expanded, the content enriched, and the level of cooperation advanced; Thus Japanese-American security system becomes the only one bilateral security regime that keeps the Cold War pattern and is unprecedentedly strengthened. In the era when significant changes take place, this system is not weakened, but strengthened. This does arouse people's strong concern.
Starting with the analysis of the definition of security regime, this paper argues that the so-called Japanese-American security system is the bilateral security regime existing between Japan and the United States, and systematically discusses the establishment, development and strengthening of Japanese- American security system from the perspective of security regime.
First, the paper deals mainly with the establishment of Japanese- American security system. Based on the study on the formation of security regime of the foreign experts, the paper generalizes the three factors forming the security regime. Combining these three factors and the background of the cold war, the paper analyses the historical factors of the establishment of Japanese-American security system. Those three main factors are as followings: (1) The United States, through the Second World War, thoroughly defeated Japan, the rivalry in the Far East, and fully controlled Japan after the war. It is the hegemony of the United States that played the leading role in forming Japanese-American security system. (2)The interests and mutual needs of United States and Japan under the cold war became the motive to establish such a system. (3) Making peace had Japan and the United States converge in the interest on security issues. This is the basis for the final establishment of this system.
Japanese-American security system is the product of the cold war featuring the confrontation of the United States and Soviet Union. Through the creation of bilateral security regime, Japan obtains security protection offered by the United States, while the United States achieves the legal rights to maintain military and military bases in Japan and the purpose to contain the socialist camp headed by the Soviet Union by making use of Japan. The regime prescribed the rights and obligations to the security cooperation for the United States and Japan, thus the United States and Japan security cooperation was institutionalized. Moreover, the Japanese-American Security system determines the nature of the relationship and the standard of behavior between the Japan and the United States and becomes the political and diplomatic framework of the two countries.
Then, the paper deals mainly with the modification of Japanese- American security system. Security regime is not rigid. As the contrast of power between the participants and international and domestic situation change, so will security regime accordingly. Due to the inequities of the system, Japan's sovereignty was seriously harmed, hence the inner damage to the instability of the regime. Therefore, when the Japanese economy recovered, international status raised, and defense capability recuperated, Japan would require the commensurate rights and obligations. Because of the importance of the system, the United States had to address the restoration of the power of Japan and to revise the Japanese-American security system together with Japan at the beginning of the 1960s. The modification involved the deletion of the inequality items in Japanese-American Security Treaty. It also clarified the obligations of the United States to defense Japan, and prescribed the valid term and relevant procedures of the new security system. Hence, Japan’s status rose in the Japan-U.S relationship to some extent. Japan-U.S. cooperation was also expended to the economic field.
The modification did not touch the substance of Japanese-American security system, but met Japan’s demand of equal status to the United States to some extent, and helped balance the inner factors and strengthened the effectiveness and stability of Japanese-American security system.
Last, the paper discusses the re-definition and the transformation of Japanese-American security system. In the early 1990s, with the end of the cold war and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Japanese-American security system lost the foundation for its existence immediately. At the same time, the effect of the end of the cold war on the domestic policies of both sides and on the situation in the Asia-Pacific region combining Japan's powerful economy and political aspiration made both sides question about the existence of the Japanese-American security system. Obviously, in the circumstance in which various international and domestic situations changed dramatically, the original cooperation regime of Japanese-American security system could not fully reflect the true status and interests of the two sides and could not ensure the interests of both sides.
At the turning point in history, Japanese-American security system showed its great elasticity. After five years of long dialogue about security issue, Japan and the United States ultimately agreed that the existence of Japanese-American security system is of great significance towards both sides and that it would become the pillar of the security in Asia-Pacific region in the coming 21st century. Thus, basing on the international situation in the post-cold-war world, Japan and the United States re-defined Japanese-American security system in order to make it adapt to the post-cold war era. The redefined system reaffirmed the importance of the bilateral military cooperation, expanded the content and geographical scope of the cooperation, advanced the level of the cooperation, all that have Japan-American security system regained the stability. Thus this system became the only one security regime forming in cold war that has strengthened. The Japanese-American security system has undergone substantial changes. Its strategic intentions shifted from containment of the Soviet-led socialist camp’s "expansion" into concerning the security of the Asia-Pacific region, and the realization of the hegemony of Japan and America in the Asia-Pacific region.
By discussing the evolution of Japan-American security system, the paper notes that the security interest of Japan and the United States adjusts and converge constantly through this system, hence, Japan and U.S. establish a exclusive bilateral security regime. This security regime fully meets the security requirements of both sides at all stages, and i is constantly strengthened with every modification, all that shows its considerable stability and elasticity. Accordingly, the redefined Japanese-American security system may have a long term of steady development in the globalization.