20世纪日本对外结盟研究/

2019-05-09 19:14:54

foreign alliance Japan 结盟



日本对外结盟次数多,持续时间长,覆盖区域广,影响波及日本、东亚及世界,贯穿过去、现今及未来。因此,对外结盟是日本外交史中极富特色的一个方面。目前,日英、日俄、日德同盟已成为历史,日美同盟仍在运转。历史与现实为我们把日本对外结盟整体作为研究对象,既提供了难得的条件,又提出了迫切的要求。因此,本文将在前辈同仁研究的基础上,从20世纪长时段的视野,以日本对外结盟整体为对象,对该问题进行综合分析,试图探讨20世纪日本对外结盟的特点和共性。
日本在20世纪如此持久的对外结盟实践有它的思想酝酿期。19世纪最后50年堪称日本20世纪结盟实践的思想酝酿期。日本近代结盟思想发轫的第一阶段为幕末、明治初期至19世纪80年代末,其特征是表现出结盟弱国论与结盟强国论的分野。日本近代结盟思想的第二个阶段是19世纪90年代,以结盟强国论逐渐确立为特征。日本近代结盟思想的内涵主要涉及结盟基础的判断、结盟模式的选择和结盟功能的追求。在结盟思想发轫的第一阶段,由于日本在近邻中朝、尤其是中国和西方列强之间根据国家的实力不断调整对威胁和利益重合的认识,其结盟基础判断没有固定下来,因此在结盟模式的选择上表现为选择结盟弱国和结盟强国的摇摆,在结盟功能的追求上表现为既希望借结盟对抗列强以求国家的生存与安全,又想借结盟之力为将来日本称霸服务。在日本近代结盟思想发轫的第二阶段,随着中国国力的持续衰落,近邻中朝成为日本增加力量的掠夺对象而非增加力量的结盟对象;同时,欧美强国的威胁也由危及日本的生存转变为威胁其对亚洲近邻的掠夺。于是,该阶段日本结盟功能的追求已转变为便于掠夺亚洲近邻、参与列强争霸,结盟模式的选择定位在结盟强国。
如果说19世纪最后50年是日本对外结盟的思想酝酿期,那么20世纪则是日本对外结盟的实践期。随着日本结盟思想日渐清晰,结盟实践全面展开。在20世纪,日本先后构建或参与了四次同盟,它们分别是日英同盟、日俄同盟、日德同盟以及日美同盟。在日本的四次结盟中,日英同盟、日俄同盟存在交叉,在历史中出现了日本均参与其中、在时间上既出入又重叠、在内容上既对立又并存这一独特的结盟现象。尽管日德结盟思想之花出现在日英、日俄同盟时期,但日德同盟之果缔结在日美矛盾严重激化之时;日美同盟的建立是在一个基本的前提之下——日美由冲突转为日本被美国的单独占领,这一基本前提的形成与日本的对外结盟政策以及日德同盟存在着密切的关系。因此,在一定意义上,日德同盟与日美同盟存在历史性的交替。
在日本对外结盟实践梳理的基础上,我们将从日本对外结盟的时间及空间、结盟对象及针对对象的角度为切入,分析日本20世纪对外结盟的特点。日本在整个20世纪70%以上的时间内都处于同盟之中,日本对外结盟的特殊性不在于其稀少和短暂,而在于频繁和持久。日本与同盟者的结盟视野分别是地区性的和全球性的;结盟视野的重合程度越高,同盟持续的时间越长、运转越有效,否则相反。日本结盟轨迹是:与霸权国家结盟→与挑战霸权的国家结盟→与霸权国家结盟。日本结盟外交与国家战略的关系轨迹是:冲突→服务→冲突。根据上述两个轨迹的特点以及日本在同盟中的地位、四次同盟的紧密程度,20世纪日本结盟外交分为两个阶段,日英、日俄、日德同盟为第一阶段,日美同盟为第二阶段。
对于日本何以出现如此特色鲜明的结盟外交,学者们一直进行着不懈的努力。笔者认为,日本对外结盟与国际体系的演变存在联系,毕竟对任何国家而言结盟都是一种对外关系。国家在国际体系中的位置对该国的结盟外交产生影响。日本长期处于国际体系和地缘的双重边缘位置,滋生出现实的机会主义、孤儿意识和团队精神以及易受到攻击的意识,这使日本产生了强烈的结盟意识。日本从未停止对国际体系重心位置的追逐,这与处于国际体系重心位置国家的东亚均势战略相互动,也对日本长期结盟外交的实践起到了塑造作用。
国家对外政策既受到国际体系的影响,又受到国内因素的左右,毕竟国家的对外政策也是经由国内因素的持续塑造、修正而表达出来。因此,在分析日本长期对外结盟的原因时,日本的国内观念及国内政治也是有益的视角。日本国内的集团意识为其对外投身集团、进行结盟提供了最广泛的认知背景和观念基础,而自我约束意识以及现实的相对主义意识为日本尽可能地消除了结盟顾虑和心理障碍。在对日本社会产生巨大影响的依赖心理和“忠”的观念内,依赖是对“别人”的依赖,“忠”是对“别人”的“忠”;依赖是对强者的依赖,“忠”是对强者的“忠”;依赖和“忠”的观念都是基于利益交换之上。这也为解释日本为何结盟及与谁结盟提供了视角。
由于长期生存在派系联合与斗争的社会政治生态之中,日本形成了一种派系联盟认知以及联盟政治经验。通过投身于集团或通过集团间的临时合作而在政治上成功的决策者,其对外政策存在借鉴自己国内政治成功经验的可能性,从而在国际上寻找一个可能有助于自己国家获得利益的集团,走上对外结盟之路。日本通过结盟曾经获得了巨大的国家收益,结盟的历程及经验反过来又激励后来的决策者采取类似的对外政策,结盟意识被不断强化。
日本对外结盟对日本及地区发展产生深远影响。结盟与国家崛起之间存在着联系,它对塑造国家崛起所需要的国际、国内环境有一定作用,但也可能给参与国带来危险;它可能为崛起国家所用,也可能为防范其崛起的国家所用。从日英同盟到日美同盟,日本两度崛起,并获得了长期的地区性优势。但是,日本对外结盟也刺激了国家间关系、导致针对日本同盟的构建以及日本的一度衰落。日本对外结盟使本地区战争烈度或战争风险增强,割裂了东亚的历史和认同,对地区安全构成了威胁;日本对外结盟也使区域化在东北亚、进而在东亚受阻,对区域合作产生负面影响。结盟对于日本的崛起以及崛起的东亚构成严重挑战。




Foreign alliance was one characteristic of Japan’s diplomatic history, as its times was so much, its duration was so long, its covered region was so widespread, and its influence affected from Japan, East Asia, and the World , through past, present and future. Currently, Japan-Anglo Alliance, Japan-Russia Alliance and Japan-Germany Alliance have become to the history, while, Japan-U.S. Alliance is operating. The history and present provide for us rare opportunity and urgent requirement to regard Japan’s foreign alliance overall as researching object. Therefore, this paper will try to analyze Japan’s foreign alliance during 20th century comprehensively and discuss its characteristics and generalities, which as the bases of studies of predecessors and scholars with the same ideas and as Japan’s foreign alliance overall as object of study from the vision of long time stage of 20th century.
As for Japan’s durable foreign alliance practice, there was its own thoughts gestation. The thoughts gestation period of Japan’s foreign alliance practice during 20th century was the last fifty years of 19th century. The first origination period of Japan’s modern foreign alliance thoughts was from the end of Shogunate and the beginning of Meiji to the end of 1880’s, its feature expressed the dividing line of arguments on entering into alliance with the power and the weaker. The second origination period of Japan’s modern foreign alliance thoughts was 1890’s, its feature expressed the establishing of arguments on entering into alliance with the power gradually. The connotation of Japan’s modern foreign alliance thoughts was related to the judgment of alliance base, the pursuit of alliance function and the alternative of alliance model. During the first period, the judgment of alliance base was not fixed because Japan continuously adjusted the awareness on threat and interest coincidence between closed neighbors China,Korea, especially China and western powers, the alternative of alliance model expressed the swing of choice of entering into alliance with the weaker and the power, the pursuit of alliance function expressed the hope of against powers and acquiring Japan’s survival and security, at the same time, dominating in the future through foreign alliance. During the second period, China and Korea had become to Japan’s plundering object for its increasing energy instead of alliance object for its increasing energy with the declining of China, therefore, the pursuit of alliance function had turned into the hope of plundering Asian closed neighbors and participation hegemony competition with powers, the alternative of alliance model positioned alliance with power.
If the last fifty years of 19th century was regarded as thoughts gestation period of Japan’s foreign alliance, 20th century was regarded as practice period of Japan’s foreign alliance. The practice of Japan’s foreign alliance started with its alliance thoughts cleared gradually. Japan set up or participated into alliance for four times successively, those were Japan-Anglo Alliance, Japan-Russia Alliance, Japan-Germany Alliance and Japan-U.S. Alliance. During four times alliance, there was crossing between Japan-Anglo Alliance and Japan-Russia Alliance, which led to a special alliance phenomenon during history that Japan all participated, time was divergent and coincident, content was conflicted and coexistent. The flower of thought on Japan-Germany Alliance emerged the period of Japan-Anglo Alliance and Japan-Russia Alliance, but the fruit of Japan-Germany Alliance concluded when the contradictions between Japan-U.S. conflicted intensively. The construction of Japan-U.S. Alliance was based on a basic premise, that was, the relationship between Japan-U.S. turned conflict into Japan’s occupation by America alone, in fact, there was closely relation between the formation of this basic premise with Japan’s foreign alliance policy and Japan-Germany Alliance. In this sense, there was historical turning between Japan-Germany Alliance with Japan-U.S. Alliance.
On the base of analysis and collation on Japan’s foreign alliance practice, we will analyze the characteristics of Japan’s foreign alliance during 20th century from the perspective of time and space, alliance object and alliance against object. It was more than 70% time during 20th century that Japan was in alliance, therefore, the particularity of Japan’s foreign alliance was not scarce and short but frequent and lasting. Alliance vision of Japan and its allies was regional and global respectively, the more degree of coincidence on alliance vision, the more lasting and effective the alliance kept, otherwise contrary. Japan’s foreign alliance track was form alliance with hegemonic state, state which challenged hegemonic state, and then hegemonic state. The track of relationship between Japan’s foreign alliance policy with Japan’s national strategy was conflicted, serviced, and then conflicted. Depending on characteristics of above tracks, Japan’s position in alliance and the close degree of four times alliance, Japan’s foreign alliance should be divided into two phases, the first phase included Japan-Anglo Alliance, Japan-Russia Alliance and Japan-Germany Alliance, the second phase included Japan-U.S. Alliance.
Scholars are researching the reason that Japan has been running so distinctive feature on foreign alliance policy for their tireless efforts. Personally, there is relationship between Japan’s foreign alliance with the evolution of international system, after all, alliance is a kind of foreign relations for any states. State’s position in the international system will affect its alliance policy. Japan’s double marginal position in international system and geopolitical location for long time that have bred realistic opportunism, orphan awareness, team spirit and awareness of being attacked easily, which lead Japan to producing strong sense of foreign alliance. Japan never give up the pursuit of the core site of international system which interacts with the East Asian strategy of these core site states in the international system, this influences Japanese long term foreign alliance diplomatic practice also.
National foreign policy not only is affected by international system but also affected by domestic factors, after all, it is expressed through sustained molding and amending by domestic factors. Therefore, Japan’s domestic ideas and politics are useful angle of view when we research the reason of Japan’s foreign alliance. Grouping consciousness provides the most extensive background of cognition and base of idea for Japan’s taking part in groups and entering into alliance, self-controlling and realistic relativism consciousness overcomes psychological misgivings and obstacles when Japan take part in alliances. From dependence psychology and the consciousness of ‘loyalty’ which have affected Japan’s society greatly, we can recognize that dependence is depend to ‘other’, ‘loyalty’ is loyal to ‘other’, dependence is depend to the stronger, ‘loyalty’ is loyal to the stronger, the consciousness of dependence and ‘loyalty’ are based on the exchanging of interests. Therefore, it provide angle of view on explaining the reason and object of Japan’s foreign alliance also.
Japan has formed a kind of cognition on factional alliance and experience on alliance politics through living in social and political ecology with factional union and struggling. It is possible for these Japan’s deciders who have succeed in politics by devoting into groups or provisional cooperation among groups to learn lessons from their domestic experience on political success, and they will walk on the road of foreign alliance through searching for the group which will benefit for their state. Japan has gained great national interests through foreign alliance, conversely, the alliance course and experience will encourage subsequent deciders to take similar foreign policy, as result, Japan’s foreign alliance consciousness is strengthened continuously.
Japan’s foreign alliance has affected Japan and region greatly. There are relationships between foreign alliance with the rising of state, alliance will influence the international and internal circumstances which are demanded by the rising of state, but it will bring risks for participators also. Alliance will be used not only by the rising state but also by state which want to prevent the rising of it. Japan rose two times and gained lasting regional advantages from Japan-Anglo Alliance to Japan-U.S. Alliance. However, Japan’s foreign alliance stimulated international relationships, led to the establishment of alliance against Japan and it declined once. Japan’s foreign alliance led to the enhancing of the war intensity or risk, separating Eastern history and identity and threatening regional security. Meanwhile, Japan’s foreign alliance had negative impact on regional cooperation by leading to the block of regionalization in Northeast Asia and even in East Asia. Japan’s foreign alliance is challenging the rising of Japan and East Asia seriously.
Foreign alliance was one characteristic of Japan’s diplomatic history, as its times was so much, its duration was so long, its covered region was so widespread, and its influence affected from Japan, East Asia, and the World , through past, present and future. Currently, Japan-Anglo Alliance, Japan-Russia Alliance and Japan-Germany Alliance have become to the history, while, Japan-U.S. Alliance is operating. The history and present provide for us rare opportunity and urgent requirement to regard Japan’s foreign alliance overall as researching object. Therefore, this paper will try to analyze Japan’s foreign alliance during 20th century comprehensively and discuss its characteristics and generalities, which as the bases of studies of predecessors and scholars with the same ideas and as Japan’s foreign alliance overall as object of study from the vision of long time stage of 20th century.
As for Japan’s durable foreign alliance practice, there was its own thoughts gestation. The thoughts gestation period of Japan’s foreign alliance practice during 20th century was the last fifty years of 19th century. The first origination period of Japan’s modern foreign alliance thoughts was from the end of Shogunate and the beginning of Meiji to the end of 1880’s, its feature expressed the dividing line of arguments on entering into alliance with the power and the weaker. The second origination period of Japan’s modern foreign alliance thoughts was 1890’s, its feature expressed the establishing of arguments on entering into alliance with the power gradually. The connotation of Japan’s modern foreign alliance thoughts was related to the judgment of alliance base, the pursuit of alliance function and the alternative of alliance model. During the first period, the judgment of alliance base was not fixed because Japan continuously adjusted the awareness on threat and interest coincidence between closed neighbors China,Korea, especially China and western powers, the alternative of alliance model expressed the swing of choice of entering into alliance with the weaker and the power, the pursuit of alliance function expressed the hope of against powers and acquiring Japan’s survival and security, at the same time, dominating in the future through foreign alliance. During the second period, China and Korea had become to Japan’s plundering object for its increasing energy instead of alliance object for its increasing energy with the declining of China, therefore, the pursuit of alliance function had turned into the hope of plundering Asian closed neighbors and participation hegemony competition with powers, the alternative of alliance model positioned alliance with power.
If the last fifty years of 19th century was regarded as thoughts gestation period of Japan’s foreign alliance, 20th century was regarded as practice period of Japan’s foreign alliance. The practice of Japan’s foreign alliance started with its alliance thoughts cleared gradually. Japan set up or participated into alliance for four times successively, those were Japan-Anglo Alliance, Japan-Russia Alliance, Japan-Germany Alliance and Japan-U.S. Alliance. During four times alliance, there was crossing between Japan-Anglo Alliance and Japan-Russia Alliance, which led to a special alliance phenomenon during history that Japan all participated, time was divergent and coincident, content was conflicted and coexistent. The flower of thought on Japan-Germany Alliance emerged the period of Japan-Anglo Alliance and Japan-Russia Alliance, but the fruit of Japan-Germany Alliance concluded when the contradictions between Japan-U.S. conflicted intensively. The construction of Japan-U.S. Alliance was based on a basic premise, that was, the relationship between Japan-U.S. turned conflict into Japan’s occupation by America alone, in fact, there was closely relation between the formation of this basic premise with Japan’s foreign alliance policy and Japan-Germany Alliance. In this sense, there was historical turning between Japan-Germany Alliance with Japan-U.S. Alliance.
On the base of analysis and collation on Japan’s foreign alliance practice, we will analyze the characteristics of Japan’s foreign alliance during 20th century from the perspective of time and space, alliance object and alliance against object. It was more than 70% time during 20th century that Japan was in alliance, therefore, the particularity of Japan’s foreign alliance was not scarce and short but frequent and lasting. Alliance vision of Japan and its allies was regional and global respectively, the more degree of coincidence on alliance vision, the more lasting and effective the alliance kept, otherwise contrary. Japan’s foreign alliance track was form alliance with hegemonic state, state which challenged hegemonic state, and then hegemonic state. The track of relationship between Japan’s foreign alliance policy with Japan’s national strategy was conflicted, serviced, and then conflicted. Depending on characteristics of above tracks, Japan’s position in alliance and the close degree of four times alliance, Japan’s foreign alliance should be divided into two phases, the first phase included Japan-Anglo Alliance, Japan-Russia Alliance and Japan-Germany Alliance, the second phase included Japan-U.S. Alliance.
Scholars are researching the reason that Japan has been running so distinctive feature on foreign alliance policy for their tireless efforts. Personally, there is relationship between Japan’s foreign alliance with the evolution of international system, after all, alliance is a kind of foreign relations for any states. State’s position in the international system will affect its alliance policy. Japan’s double marginal position in international system and geopolitical location for long time that have bred realistic opportunism, orphan awareness, team spirit and awareness of being attacked easily, which lead Japan to producing strong sense of foreign alliance. Japan never give up the pursuit of the core site of international system which interacts with the East Asian strategy of these core site states in the international system, this influences Japanese long term foreign alliance diplomatic practice also.
National foreign policy not only is affected by international system but also affected by domestic factors, after all, it is expressed through sustained molding and amending by domestic factors. Therefore, Japan’s domestic ideas and politics are useful angle of view when we research the reason of Japan’s foreign alliance. Grouping consciousness provides the most extensive background of cognition and base of idea for Japan’s taking part in groups and entering into alliance, self-controlling and realistic relativism consciousness overcomes psychological misgivings and obstacles when Japan take part in alliances. From dependence psychology and the consciousness of ‘loyalty’ which have affected Japan’s society greatly, we can recognize that dependence is depend to ‘other’, ‘loyalty’ is loyal to ‘other’, dependence is depend to the stronger, ‘loyalty’ is loyal to the stronger, the consciousness of dependence and ‘loyalty’ are based on the exchanging of interests. Therefore, it provide angle of view on explaining the reason and object of Japan’s foreign alliance also.
Japan has formed a kind of cognition on factional alliance and experience on alliance politics through living in social and political ecology with factional union and struggling. It is possible for these Japan’s deciders who have succeed in politics by devoting into groups or provisional cooperation among groups to learn lessons from their domestic experience on political success, and they will walk on the road of foreign alliance through searching for the group which will benefit for their state. Japan has gained great national interests through foreign alliance, conversely, the alliance course and experience will encourage subsequent deciders to take similar foreign policy, as result, Japan’s foreign alliance consciousness is strengthened continuously.
Japan’s foreign alliance has affected Japan and region greatly. There are relationships between foreign alliance with the rising of state, alliance will influence the international and internal circumstances which are demanded by the rising of state, but it will bring risks for participators also. Alliance will be used not only by the rising state but also by state which want to prevent the rising of it. Japan rose two times and gained lasting regional advantages from Japan-Anglo Alliance to Japan-U.S. Alliance. However, Japan’s foreign alliance stimulated international relationships, led to the establishment of alliance against Japan and it declined once. Japan’s foreign alliance led to the enhancing of the war intensity or risk, separating Eastern history and identity and threatening regional security. Meanwhile, Japan’s foreign alliance had negative impact on regional cooperation by leading to the block of regionalization in Northeast Asia and even in East Asia. Japan’s foreign alliance is challenging the rising of Japan and East Asia seriously.