Energy shortage is one of the problems that cause a bottleneck restriction in the sustainable development of national economy at present and even in the future. How to solve this problem scientifically and reasonably has always become a major issue for the political circle, the theoretical circle and the academic circle in our country. Thus having in-depth research systematically on this problem is of great importance in theory and practice.
This paper is composed of three parts as follows:
The first part compares gifted energy resources and the structure energy consumption of China with that of Japan.
Chinese energy is seriously insufficient，with large demand and inefficient using of energy. Also the simplification of energy consumption structure causes environmental pollution and makes it worse. Risk still exists in sourcing the energy. Although Japan is one of the large energy consumption countries in the world, there are little economical energy resources in this country. Comparing with many other countries that both have import and export of energy, Japan is only a pure petroleum import country. And the proportion of petroleum in total import is the highest in the world. For Japan, the energy consumption has become an abnormal structure that "the energy demand highly relies on the petroleum, the petroleum demand highly relies on the imports, and the import demand highly relies on the Middle-East." The petroleum is always the leading energy which can’t to be substituted. The security of petroleum supply is a significant strategic problem related to national economy and the people's livelihood. But, comparing with other countries with abundant petroleum, the petroleum resource in Japan is the most deficient, the proportion of petroleum consumption in energy is the highest, the petroleum demand highly depends on foreign countries, the foundation of petroleum resources is the weakest. And Japan is really a country that can’t suffer any petroleum crisis attacks. The ratio of energy self-support is extremely low, the security of energy is in risk, which makes Japan has intense consciousness of energy crisis. In order to guarantee the energy security and obtain powerful safeguard, all of the previous Japanese government regarded the energy problem as a strategic problem, and constitute a series of reasonable and effective policies and measures. These policies and measures also provide beneficial reference to Chinese energy problem.
The second part is the Japanese energy strategy and its effective effect.
The first petroleum crisis forces Japan to implement the multiplex energy strategy: its strategic target has changed from the original specific petroleum supply to the stable multiplex energy supply. In macroscopic respect ,Japan has mainly adopted some policies to maintain the security of energy as follows: to establish energy emergency executive program; to establish petroleum reservation to avoid the probable petroleum supply disruption; to improve external petroleum detection and development; to make better use of national potential energy resources; to establish the multiplex petroleum supply channel; to maintain friendly relations with energy producing country; to strengthen the regional cooperation; to encourage the energy reservation and the commercialization of new energy technology; to develop the non-petroleum energy substitution (particularly nuclear energy and liquefied natural gas); to develop energy saving movement and so on.
Japanese energy reservation has played a" cushion stock" role in manipulating the energy crisis, and it has also played an irreplaceable role in safeguarding the stable energy supply, holding down the energy price, dealing with the emergency, reducing the accidental loss and so on. After so many years of diplomatic effort, Japanese multiplex energy import channel has basically been established; this result has to some extent alleviated its dependence on petroleum from Middle-East and improved the energy security further. In order to prevent sudden stop of the petroleum supply which is extremely harmful to the national economy, the Japanese government enhances and enlarges the energy exploration investment expecting for more energy resources reservation and fundamentally safeguarding the safety of petroleum supply.
For the sake of guaranteeing the energy security, the inevitably choice for Japan is reducing the dependence on petroleum, developing energy substitution technology and multiplexing energy. Besides, developing a new energy is not only good for reducing the dependence on resources imports, saving energy, but also well for reducing the mount of greenhouse gas and protecting environment. It is real sustainable way of development. Therefore, the postwar Japan was continuously promoting the new energy developing project. As a result of the above actions, the diversified energy constitution strategy designed by the Japanese government has obtained the effective result that the energy multiplex pattern preliminary been established, the energy structure tended to the rationalization gradually, the dependence of petroleum energy been reduced, the new energy development and use showed the bright prospect, the ratio of energy self-support been further promoted.
The integrated and organic energy strategy system of Japan which made up by energy reservation strategy, the energy import strategy and the energy exploitation strategy enabled the Japanese energy security to obtain powerful safeguard and laid a foundation for the continued development of the national economy.
After the two petroleum crises in 20th century, The Japanese government took much attention of the “light weight ness” of the industrial structure, developed the activities for saving energy and improving energy efficiency, put all kinds of measures of saving energy in practice energetically, developed technologies and products which were energy-saving, efficient and high added value. The government has set up energy policy review legislature to enact the corresponding policies and laws, and to lead and normalize the all social saving actions via the revenue, the finance and etc. Japan took much count of the developments for saving energy and improving energy efficiency in the industrial field, and put all kinds of saving energy measures in practice energetically, encouraged developing saving energy technologies and products, and the effect is remarkable.
The third part is the reference of Japanese energy strategy to China
China is the only country which has not established the petroleum reservation strategy among the main petrol import countries in the world. Along with the rapid development of China recently, the gap between the total output of domestic petroleum production and the quantity of petroleum demand is much larger, and the degree of dependency for importing petroleum is also higher. Long-term lack in petroleum has been the foregone conclusion in China. For safeguarding of our country, we should profit from Japanese successful experience and establish petroleum reservation system of our country as soon as possible. Our country should make its best in the following aspects: Bring the petroleum reservation into the legal system; Determination suitable reservation scale; make main entity of petroleum reservation certain; Raise the petroleum reserve funds in every way; Establish the widespread relations in energy cooperation.
It is the 21st century trends of the world that seeking the new energy, especially, the renewable energy which can be the substitution for tradition fossil energy (coal, petroleum, natural gas). It also has important practical significance to China. To obtain sustainable development, China also should use the multiplex energy development strategy to develop the renewable energy vigorously such as the water electricity, the nuclear electricity, as well as the solar energy, the biological energy and the wind energy and so on, and reduce the fossil fuel dependence.
For China, saving energy and making full use of the fuels have the large potential and are possible. In the fact that the environment is seriously destroyed and the main reason of making environment worsen is the use of fuels in our country, the saving energy has the obvious benefit in the respects of safeguarding energy and reducing pollution that is caused by using fuels. Japan and our country is quite lack of energy, and both of us implement saving energy strategy. While comparing with the remarkably effect obtained by Japan, our country should make more efforts in both policy and constitution. Such as the consummation and execution for saving energy law, making some preferential policy to promote enterprise saving energy, enlarging the propaganda to strengthen people's saving energy consciousness.