日本的能源战略及对中国的借鉴/

2019-05-06 06:37:51

能源 energy Saving petroleum Japan



能源短缺问题是目前乃至今后相当长时期内制约我国经济可持续发展的“瓶颈”之一。如何科学合理地解决这一问题,是我国政界、理论界和学术界面临的一个重大问题。对这一问题进行深入系统的研究,具有重大的理论意义和实践意义。
本论文由以下三部分构成:
第一部分为中日两国能源资源禀赋及消费结构的比较
中国能源严重不足,能源需求量大,能源利用效率低,单一能源消费模式导致环境污染严重,能源来源存在风险。日本是世界主要的能源消费大国,但是,日本却是一个能源资源的小国,国内几乎没有具有经济意义的能源资源可言。相对于许多国家的有进有出,日本可以说是一个只进不出的石油纯进口国,也是世界石油进口比重最高的国家之一。对于日本而言,日本的能源消费已基本形成“能源需求高度依赖石油,石油需求高度依赖进口,进口需求高度依赖中东”的畸形结构,石油始终是日本无可替代的主导能源,石油的安全供应是有关国计民生的重大战略问题。但是,与其他石油消费大国相比,日本石油资源最贫乏、石油消费在一次能源消费构成中比重最高、石油需求对外依存度最高、能源基础最为脆弱,是最经不起石油危机打击的国家。能源自给率极低,能源安全处于极大的风险之中,使得日本具有强烈的能源危机意识。为了使日本的能源安全得到强有力的保障,历届日本政府以战略的眼光来看待能源问题,制定和实施了一系列合理、有效的能源政策和措施,也为我国解决能源问题提供了有益的借鉴。
第二部分为日本的能源战略及其成效
第一次石油危机迫使日本实施多元化战略,其战略目标由原来特定的石油供应改变为保持稳定的多元化能源供应。在宏观上日本主要采取以下政策保持国家能源安全:建立能源应急管理程序、建立石油储备以应付可能的石油供应中断、促进海外石油勘查开发以及更好地利用本国潜在的能源资源、石油供应渠道多元化以及维持与能源生产国的友好关系、采用区域合作、鼓励能源储备和新能源技术的商业化、发展非石油能源替代品(尤其是核能和液化天然气)、开展节能运动等。
日本的能源储备在应付能源危机方面起到了“缓冲库存”的作用,对保障能源稳定供应、平抑能源价格、应对紧急状态、减少意外损失等方面起到了无法替代的作用。经过多年的外交努力,日本的能源进口渠道多元化格局基本形成,在一定程度上缓解了对中东石油的过度依赖,能源安全进一步提高。为防止石油供应突然中断给国家经济造成危害,日本政府重视并加大勘探投入,以求拥有更多地资源储量,从根本上保障石油安全供应。
为了确保能源安全,减少对石油的依赖,开发替代能源,走能源多元化之路,是日本的必然选择。并且,发展新能源在减少对进口资源的依赖、节省能源的同时,又能减排温室气体、有利于环保,是一条可持续发展道路。因此,日本在战后一直不间断地推出新能源开发计划。通过上述举措, 日本政府所设计的能源构成多样化战略已取得成效,能源多元化格局初步形成,能源结构逐步趋向合理化,在很大程度上改变了对化石能源的过度依赖,新能源的开发利用展现出光明的前景,能源自给率进一步提升。
日本的能源储备战略、能源进口战略和能源开发战略,构成了一个完整有机的能源战略体系,使日本的能源安全得到了强有力的保障,为国民经济的持续发展奠定了基础。
20世纪的两次石油危机以后,日本政府高度重视产业结构的“轻量化”,开展节省能源、提高能效运动,积极推行各种节能措施, 大力发展节能、高效、高附加值的技术与产品。政府设立了与能源相关的政策审议会,制定相应政策和法规,并以税收、财政、金融等手段,引导和规范全社会的节能活动。日本高度重视在产业界开展节省能源、提高能效运动,积极推行各种节能措施,鼓励开发节能技术和产品,成效显著。
第三部分为对我国能源战略的借鉴
在世界主要石油进口大国中,中国是唯一尚未建立战略石油储备的国家。随着近年来我国经济的快速发展,石油需求总量同国内石油生产总量的差距将越来越大,对进口石油的依存度越来越高,石油资源的长期短缺已成定局。因此,我国应借鉴日本的成功经验,尽快建立我国的战略石油储备体系,保障我国的石油安全。将石油储备纳入法制轨道;确定适当储备规模;确定石油储备主体;多方筹措石油储备经费;建立广泛的能源合作关系。
寻求新型能源,尤其是可再生能源替代煤炭、石油、天然气等传统化石能源,是21世纪的世界潮流。对于中国也是具有重要的现实意义。中国也应采用多元化能源开发战略,大力开发水电、核电,以及太阳能、生物能、风能等可再生能源,减少对化石燃料的依赖,以赢得能源的可持续发展。
对于中国来说,节能和提高能效也有着巨大的潜力和可能。并且,鉴于我国环境已严重破坏以及能源生产利用是造成环境恶化的主要原因,节能也对保障能源安全和减少能源生产利用引起的环境污染产生明显的效益。我国和日本同属于能源比较贫乏的国家,两国也同样实行了节约能源的政策,然而与日本所取得的巨大的成效相比,我国在政策体制等方面还有很多需努力加强之处:节能法规体系的完善和执行;制定各种优惠政策促进企业节能;加大宣传增强人民的节能意识。



Energy shortage is one of the problems that cause a bottleneck restriction in the sustainable development of national economy at present and even in the future. How to solve this problem scientifically and reasonably has always become a major issue for the political circle, the theoretical circle and the academic circle in our country. Thus having in-depth research systematically on this problem is of great importance in theory and practice.
This paper is composed of three parts as follows:
The first part compares gifted energy resources and the structure energy consumption of China with that of Japan.
Chinese energy is seriously insufficient,with large demand and inefficient using of energy. Also the simplification of energy consumption structure causes environmental pollution and makes it worse. Risk still exists in sourcing the energy. Although Japan is one of the large energy consumption countries in the world, there are little economical energy resources in this country. Comparing with many other countries that both have import and export of energy, Japan is only a pure petroleum import country. And the proportion of petroleum in total import is the highest in the world. For Japan, the energy consumption has become an abnormal structure that "the energy demand highly relies on the petroleum, the petroleum demand highly relies on the imports, and the import demand highly relies on the Middle-East." The petroleum is always the leading energy which can’t to be substituted. The security of petroleum supply is a significant strategic problem related to national economy and the people's livelihood. But, comparing with other countries with abundant petroleum, the petroleum resource in Japan is the most deficient, the proportion of petroleum consumption in energy is the highest, the petroleum demand highly depends on foreign countries, the foundation of petroleum resources is the weakest. And Japan is really a country that can’t suffer any petroleum crisis attacks. The ratio of energy self-support is extremely low, the security of energy is in risk, which makes Japan has intense consciousness of energy crisis. In order to guarantee the energy security and obtain powerful safeguard, all of the previous Japanese government regarded the energy problem as a strategic problem, and constitute a series of reasonable and effective policies and measures. These policies and measures also provide beneficial reference to Chinese energy problem.
The second part is the Japanese energy strategy and its effective effect.
The first petroleum crisis forces Japan to implement the multiplex energy strategy: its strategic target has changed from the original specific petroleum supply to the stable multiplex energy supply. In macroscopic respect ,Japan has mainly adopted some policies to maintain the security of energy as follows: to establish energy emergency executive program; to establish petroleum reservation to avoid the probable petroleum supply disruption; to improve external petroleum detection and development; to make better use of national potential energy resources; to establish the multiplex petroleum supply channel; to maintain friendly relations with energy producing country; to strengthen the regional cooperation; to encourage the energy reservation and the commercialization of new energy technology; to develop the non-petroleum energy substitution (particularly nuclear energy and liquefied natural gas); to develop energy saving movement and so on.
Japanese energy reservation has played a" cushion stock" role in manipulating the energy crisis, and it has also played an irreplaceable role in safeguarding the stable energy supply, holding down the energy price, dealing with the emergency, reducing the accidental loss and so on. After so many years of diplomatic effort, Japanese multiplex energy import channel has basically been established; this result has to some extent alleviated its dependence on petroleum from Middle-East and improved the energy security further. In order to prevent sudden stop of the petroleum supply which is extremely harmful to the national economy, the Japanese government enhances and enlarges the energy exploration investment expecting for more energy resources reservation and fundamentally safeguarding the safety of petroleum supply.
For the sake of guaranteeing the energy security, the inevitably choice for Japan is reducing the dependence on petroleum, developing energy substitution technology and multiplexing energy. Besides, developing a new energy is not only good for reducing the dependence on resources imports, saving energy, but also well for reducing the mount of greenhouse gas and protecting environment. It is real sustainable way of development. Therefore, the postwar Japan was continuously promoting the new energy developing project. As a result of the above actions, the diversified energy constitution strategy designed by the Japanese government has obtained the effective result that the energy multiplex pattern preliminary been established, the energy structure tended to the rationalization gradually, the dependence of petroleum energy been reduced, the new energy development and use showed the bright prospect, the ratio of energy self-support been further promoted.
The integrated and organic energy strategy system of Japan which made up by energy reservation strategy, the energy import strategy and the energy exploitation strategy enabled the Japanese energy security to obtain powerful safeguard and laid a foundation for the continued development of the national economy.
After the two petroleum crises in 20th century, The Japanese government took much attention of the “light weight ness” of the industrial structure, developed the activities for saving energy and improving energy efficiency, put all kinds of measures of saving energy in practice energetically, developed technologies and products which were energy-saving, efficient and high added value. The government has set up energy policy review legislature to enact the corresponding policies and laws, and to lead and normalize the all social saving actions via the revenue, the finance and etc. Japan took much count of the developments for saving energy and improving energy efficiency in the industrial field, and put all kinds of saving energy measures in practice energetically, encouraged developing saving energy technologies and products, and the effect is remarkable.
The third part is the reference of Japanese energy strategy to China
China is the only country which has not established the petroleum reservation strategy among the main petrol import countries in the world. Along with the rapid development of China recently, the gap between the total output of domestic petroleum production and the quantity of petroleum demand is much larger, and the degree of dependency for importing petroleum is also higher. Long-term lack in petroleum has been the foregone conclusion in China. For safeguarding of our country, we should profit from Japanese successful experience and establish petroleum reservation system of our country as soon as possible. Our country should make its best in the following aspects: Bring the petroleum reservation into the legal system; Determination suitable reservation scale; make main entity of petroleum reservation certain; Raise the petroleum reserve funds in every way; Establish the widespread relations in energy cooperation.
It is the 21st century trends of the world that seeking the new energy, especially, the renewable energy which can be the substitution for tradition fossil energy (coal, petroleum, natural gas). It also has important practical significance to China. To obtain sustainable development, China also should use the multiplex energy development strategy to develop the renewable energy vigorously such as the water electricity, the nuclear electricity, as well as the solar energy, the biological energy and the wind energy and so on, and reduce the fossil fuel dependence.
For China, saving energy and making full use of the fuels have the large potential and are possible. In the fact that the environment is seriously destroyed and the main reason of making environment worsen is the use of fuels in our country, the saving energy has the obvious benefit in the respects of safeguarding energy and reducing pollution that is caused by using fuels. Japan and our country is quite lack of energy, and both of us implement saving energy strategy. While comparing with the remarkably effect obtained by Japan, our country should make more efforts in both policy and constitution. Such as the consummation and execution for saving energy law, making some preferential policy to promote enterprise saving energy, enlarging the propaganda to strengthen people's saving energy consciousness.