中日韩自由贸易区研究/

2019-05-05 22:53:01

China 自由贸易区 Japan FTA Korea



中文摘要
随着世界经济全球化的加速发展,区域经济一体化趋势日益明显。然而区域经济一体化的发展又是不平衡的。与西欧和北美地区相比,东亚地区的区域一体化进程缓慢,特别是占据了东亚整体经济规模90%左右的中日韩三国更是步履艰难,这与三国的经济实力、发展水平以及在世界上的经济地位极不相符。在中国2004年成功地与东盟就建立自由贸易区签署框架协议之后,中日韩这三个重要的东北亚经济国家的合作前景日益引人关注。基于这样的背景,本文以中日韩自由贸易区构想为研究对象,就中日韩三国构建自由贸易区的背景、经济效果、存在的问题、发展前景及对策等问题进行了探讨。
本文从分析自由贸易协定和自由贸易区的定义入手,分析自由贸易区的发展现状,详细阐述了建立中日韩自由贸易区构想的相关背景,从时代的发展要求,经济的互补性及日益理性的政治氛围出发说明了建立中日韩自由贸易区的战略和现实意义。随后,本文重点就建立自由贸易区为中日韩三国各自带来的影响进行分析,对建立自由贸易区应做的工作等问题进行了详细的阐述,从中得出“建立中日韩自由贸易区能够优化三国经济结构,增加三国产品在世界上的竞争力,更大地发挥三国在世界经济舞台上的作用”的结论。最后,本文对如何建立三国自由贸易区给出了具体的建议,重点包括建立多层面、形式各样的对话合作机制、优先开展企业和产业间的合作、积极谋求政治互信等。
第一部分阐述了自由贸易协定的一般理论,重点对自由贸易协定的定义、效果及自由贸易区的发展情况进行详细描述。笔者认为,自由贸易协定是两个或两个以上关税地区之间设定自由贸易安排的法律文件,而自由贸易区就是指根据自由贸易协定设立的、彼此之间在实质上取消了关税和其他限制性贸易措施的两个或两个以上关税地区形成的贸易区。自由贸易区的建立将降低区内国家间的关税,促进缔约国之间的贸易,会产生包括正面性的贸易创造和负面性的贸易转移的静态效果。同时,还能带来更广泛,长远的动态效果,增加区内产业实现规模经济的机会,加剧市场的竞争性,促进资源的有效配置,改善投资环境,加强对投资者的吸引力。
第二部分在目前东亚自由贸易区发展现状的基础上,阐述了建立中日韩自由贸易区构想的相关背景,分析了中国、韩国和日本的FTA战略,最终从时代的发展要求,经济的互补性及日益理性的政治氛围出发说明了建立中日韩自由贸易区的现实意义。笔者认为,在世界区域经济一体化获得快速发展,东亚区域经济合作得到实质进展、中日韩三国开始规划各自FTA战略的基础上,构建中日韩自由贸易区的设想具有较强的战略意义和现实意义。
第三部分分析了构建中日韩自由贸易区对三国经济影响的不同效果,说明了建立自由贸易区对三国整体经济和各产业的静态影响以及长期的动态影响。总体来看,构建中日韩三国之间自由贸易区,可以带来以下两个方面的影响:第一,促进东北亚区域经济合作与东亚经济圈的形成。中日韩是在东亚地区最具代表性的国家,所以三国组成的经济合作体肯定会起到示范和带头作用。而中日韩三国的起步通过核心扩散效应,逐步影响到周边国家,最终走向东亚经济圈的形成。第二,对三国国民经济发展和产业发展带来较大影响。自由贸易区内的跨国企业对区内投资的加强,在出现规模性经济促进竞争的同时,也会出现经济整合的动态效果。
第四部分分析中日韩自由贸易区的发展前景,阐述建立中日韩自由贸易区的有利条件和存在的问题。本章通过分析三国贸易关系,经济互补性以及地理、历史、文化的渊源等方面,发现三国间双边贸易额呈逐步增加趋势,贸易额度还会增长;而三国经济结构的互补性有利于三国通过产业分工和贸易获得比较利益;同时,中日韩三国在地理、历史,文化上的渊源是三国间缔结自由贸易协定奠定的基础。因此,构建中日韩三国自由贸易区的前景美好。尽管如此,由于三国在对FTA的立场态度存在差异、经济水平和体制不同、对农产品市场的开放态度差别以及国家间的政治摩擦等方面的原因,构建自由贸易区仍然任重而道远。
第五部分从选择中日韩合作方案,优化经贸结构,灵活的对话机制,企业间合作及政治互信等方面给出了促进构建中日韩自由贸易区的合理建议。本文认为,要实现中日韩三国经济区域一体化的目标,应该在以下几方面进行努力:寻找让三方都能收益,符合三方意愿的FTA合作方案;优化经贸结构,改善韩对日、日对中、中对韩的贸易逆差;建立多层面、形式各样的对话合作机制;优先开展企业和产业间的合作;积极谋求政治互信。
总之,日益紧密的经贸关系,独特的地缘政治和经济,相近的历史人文背景为建立中日韩自由贸易区提供了物质基础与条件。中日韩自由贸易区的建立能够优化三国经济结构,为三国带来更大的经济利益。但制约三国经济合作进程的因素依然存在。三国应本着互惠互利的原则,积极探索三国自由贸易区的有效合作机制,从点到面,依次推进,逐步消除障碍,建立中日韩自由贸易区,促进东亚经济的进一步繁荣。

关键词:区域经济一体化,自由贸易区,中日韩



Abstract
The fast development of economic globalization accelerates the trend to regional integrated economic. But, the development of regional integrated economic is not balanceable in the world. Compared with the area of West-Europe and North-America, the regional integrated economic in East Asia, especially for three countries of China, Japan and Korea which occupy 90 percent of economical gross of East Asian countries, goes slowly. It is not accordant with the economical level and position of three countries in the world. After the frame agreement on building Free Trade Area (FTA) between China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was subscribed at 2004, the cooperative perspective among China, Japan and Korea became noticeable. Based on above presentation, the conceptions of China-Japan-Korea FTA are taken as the object to discuss the background, economical effects, existing problems, future and suggestions of establishing the China-Japan-Korea FTA in this thesis.
In this thesis, based on the definitions of FTA, the current situation of FTA development and related backgrounds of building China-Japan-Korea FTA are described detail. The strategy and realistic importance of establishing China-Japan-Korea FTA are explained through the era development, economic match and reasonable political air. Then, the effects resulted from FTA and the works needed to do for building FTA are analyzed. And the conclusion of “the forming of China-Japan-Korea FTA can optimize the economical structures of three countries, enhance the competition of products of the three countries and become more important in the platform of world economic” is draw. At last, the material suggestions for how to build China-Japan-Korea FTA are proposed. These suggestions include mainly forming multi-level and multifarious talking and cooperative mechanism, developing preferentially the cooperation in companies and industries and striving for political trust actively.
The FTA is an important embodiment of regional integrated economic. The definition, effects and development of Free Trade Agreement are introduced in the first chapter. The author thinks that the free trade agreement means that the law files set-up in two or more custom areas. The free trade area is the region formed by two or more custom areas based on the free trade agreement. The custom and other limit measures on trade are cancelled practically. The building of FTA will reduce the custom, promote the trade and produce the static effects including positive trade creation effect and negative trade transfer effect among countries in the region. The building of FTA also produce more extensive and long-term dynamic effects, increase the possibility of realizing scale economy of industries, stimulate the competition of market, optimize the arrangement of resources and improve the investment environment.
The related background and necessity of establishing the FTA in China, Japan and Korea are described in the second chapter based on the development situation of East Asia FTA. The strategies of China, Korea and Japan are analyzed. The era development, strong match among the economic, industrial structure and resources of China, Japan and Korea, and reasonable political air all clarify the necessity of promoting the economical collaboration and building regional integrated economic. The author thinks that the forming of the China-Japan-Korea FTA has strong strategy and realistic importance based on the fast development of regional integrated economic in the world, the practical development of East Asia economical cooperation and starting to plan individual FTA strategy in the three countries.
The economical effects resulted from China-Japan-Korea FTA are analyzed in the third chapter. For China, the forming of FTA will improve the environment for foreign trade, push the development of foreign trade, increase the quantity and quality investment and elevate the international competition of Chinese enterprises. But, at the same time, FTA will make Chinese companies and markets to face stronger competition and risk from economical cooperation. For Japan, the forming of FTA will increase slightly the real GDP, enlarge the trade surplus to Korea and China, get great impact in agricultural products, garment and fishery product. For Korea, the forming of FTA will increase the GDP, enlarge the trade surplus to China and trade deficit to Japan. The dynamic economical effects to Korea resulted from FTA is the most inconspicuous among the three countries. Generally, the establishment of China-Japan-Korea FTA can accelerate the economical cooperation in Northeast Asian area and the forming of East Asian economic community, influence greatly the economical and industrial development of three countries, and enhance the dependence on each other.
The developing prospect of China-Japan-Korea FTA is discussed in the fourth chapter. Through the trade volume increase year by year between China and Korea, Japan and Korea, China and Japan, the proportion of trade among the three countries are still small, which demonstrate that the cooperative potential in the three countries is great. The mutual complement features in production factors and industrial structure will optimize the resources. The relationship among China, Japan and Korea is close in geography, history and culture. All these factors supply material base and opportunity to the building of China-Japan-Korea. There are still disadvantageous factors to establishing the FTA. These problems include the different standpoint to FTA, the diversity in economical level and economical system, the difficulty in opening the agriculture products and the political conflict. If these problems could not be resolved effectively, the economical cooperation and the course of establishing the China-Japan-Korea FTA will be baffled considerably.
Based on the status of economical cooperation and existed problems, the suggestions are proposed for driving the development of China-Japan-Korea FTA. These suggestions include: mapping out the corporate-win FTA scheme. The cooperation in two sides can be used to drive the cooperation in three sides after the FTA framework is agreed; optimizing the economical and trade structure, improving the trade deficit in the three countries, replacing the traditional cooperative method of “perpendicularity- complementarity” in industrial structure with “level-division”. The three countries should apply individual advantages to develop the market outside the region and to elevate the competition of products; forming multi-level and multifarious talking and cooperative mechanism. The establishment of FTA needs that the politicians recognize the situation, the enterprisers exploit the new fields continually, and the researchers find problems and propose valuable suggestions; developing preferentially the cooperation in companies and industries and fasting the FTA course. The cooperation in partial industries and companies will influence and drive other companies and industries, and accumulate the experience for establishing the FTA; striving for political trust actively, facing reasoningly current political problems. The three countries should build trustable and dependent relationship which can supply reliable political guarantee for establishing FTA.
Generally, closer economical and trade relationship, unparalleled geography politics and economy and similar historical and cultural background supply material elements and conditions for establishing the China-Japan-Korea FTA. The forming of China-Japan-Korea FTA will optimize economical and trade structure and bring bigger profits for three countries. There are still adverse factors to course of economic cooperation in the three countries. China, Japan and Korea should take reciprocity as principle, explore actively the effective cooperation mechanism, advance step by step, clear up the obstacles, set-up the China-Japan-Korea FTA and accelerate the prosperity of East Asian economy.

Key words: Regional Integrated Economic Development Network; Free Trade Area; China-Japan-Korea