从日本的联合国外交看日美同盟的未来/

2019-05-05 14:06:30

日本 Japanese US Japan United



论文摘要
苏联解体、东欧剧变标志着冷战的结束,同样也意味着日本作为美苏冷战对抗前沿的作用的丧失。本应在冷战结束后也终结其生命的日美同盟,却随着时间的推移,不断得到强化。日本不断依托美国发动的反恐战争来“借鸡生蛋”、“借船出海”,意欲在国际社会上树立军事大国形象;与此同时,在联合国成立六十周年之际,日本在外交上四面出击,大谈联合国改革,图谋联合国安理会常任席位。日本的这些举动不能不引起其邻国——中国的强烈关注。
本文通过对日本联合国外交阶段性的特定历史事件回顾来对战后日美关系史作一个案例性的抽样分析,运用历史和实证主义方法,深入系统地研究和论述了二战后日本联合国外交与日美基轴之间关系的发展历程,以此总结出日本外交的一般性规律,并对日美关系的未来发展走向作出前瞻性的分析。文章主要分为三个部分:
第一部分:对学术界关于日美关系以及日本联合国外交的研究现状进行简单概述,并提出了本文的研究方法和相关材料的选择。
第二部分:对文章涉及到的两个核心概念:日美基轴和日本的联合国中心主义进行界定。并且依托我国学者刘世龙对日美关系发展的阶段划分,选取了三个阶段性的历史事件进行研究分析,以此来廓清日美基轴与日本联合国中心主义之间的关系。并通过分析可以得出三个结论:1、日本的联合国外交似乎是在表明自身的独立性,但是更多的时候是在日美协调框架下进行的,日美同盟是日本外交“永恒”不变的基础。2、日本外交的极端利己主义。战后日本联合国外交遵循了一条主线:借重联合国实行为其带来利益的机会主义和基于现实政治考虑的务实主义策略。实质上多边主义从未在日本外交和安全政策中占主导地位。它对于联合国的态度是矛盾的,且又是实用主义的,是与日本通过代价最小化行使外交政策,追逐国家利益相一致的。3、无论是维系日美基轴也好,抑或是加强联合国外交,日本都是为其谋求政治大国地位服务的,改变经济巨人、政治矮子的形象,在世界上谋求经济、政治、军事全方位大国地位才是日本的终极目标。
第三部分:通过分析日本对政治大国地位的诉求及其谋求政治大国地位手段的有限性和实现政治大国目标的过程性来分析日美同盟的未来发展趋势:一方面,日本特殊的历史地位和现实的国际环境决定了日本谋求政治大国地位的手段极其有限,其可能利用来实现政治大国理想的外交手段全部都与美国有关,日本根本无法摆脱美国的影响,孤身追求政治大国地位。这也预示着,从日本的角度考虑,日美同盟关系还将延续很长一段时间;另一方面,政治大国地位的获取也不可能一蹴而就,这必将是一个漫长的历史过程,在这个过程中,我们应该对日美关系进行动态分析,注意日美同盟变化的新趋势。在日美安保框架之中,随着日本谋求政治大国之路的不断推进,日美两国各自所占的比重将会发生静悄悄的“量变。这种新趋势具体体现为:日美同盟关系随着时间推移和双方战略需要,不断扩大其适用范围,“全球化”趋势愈加明显;另一方面,日本在自身政治大国理想与维系日美同盟的实践举措之间不断博弈选择的过程中,独立性不断增强。



Abstract
Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the drastic changes in Eastern Europe marked the end of the cold war, Japan also means that as the role of the US-Soviet Cold War confrontation forward loss. Japan-US alliance should be ended its life the with the end of the Cold War, but with the passage of time, and constantly reinforced. Japan continued to rely on the United States launched the war on terrorism to "take eggs from chicken," and "borrowed boat to go out from sea", Sentiment in the international community establish a military image; At the same time, in 60 anniversary of the founding of the United Nations, Japanese diplomatic attacking, talking about the reform of the United Nations, to the UN Security Council permanent seat, Japanese these actions can not but arouse strong as its neighbours -- China's concern.
The adoption of Japanese diplomacy at the United Nations to specific historical events recalled the history of post-war Japan-US relations as a case of the sample analysis, Using historical and empirical approach, Systematically discussed in-depth research and political relations between Japan and the United States after World War II, the course of development and Japanese diplomatic and thus summed up the general laws, and the future development of Japan-US relations towards a forward-looking analysis. The article is divided into three main parts.
Part I : For the academic community on the Japan-US diplomatic relations and the status of research on the Japanese UN simple overview, And made choices from this research methods and materials.
Part II :Define the two core conception concerning to this theme: basic axis of Japan-US alliance and Japan’ s certerlism of UN (the United Nations). And according to our country’ s scholar liu shilong’ s definition of the development of the relation of Japan-US, we have selected historical things of three different stages to analyze, in order to clear the relation between basic axis of Japan-US alliance and Japan’ s centralism of UN (the United Nations). Through the analysis we can draw three conclusions: 1、Japanese UN diplomacy seems to demonstrate its independent, but in more time it was proceeded under the framework of the harmony of Japanese with the United States, Japan-US alliance is the Japanese diplomacy’ s perpetual foundation. The extreme egoism of Japanese diplomacy: Japanese UN diplomacy postwar follows one main clue: the opportunism to acquire its own interests and the pragmatism policy on the basis of the realpolitic by relying on the UN’s support. In fact, multilateralism has never taken the dominant position in Japanese diplomacy and its security policy. Japanese attitude to the UN is repugnant and pragmatic, but this is in unanimity with the pursuit of national interests by the smallest price through diplomatic policy. Whether to maintain the basic axis of Japan-US alliance or to strengthen its UN diplomacy, both are served for the goal of Japan to becoming a political great power, to change the appearance of a giant in economy and a dwarfs in politics. The ultimate object of Japan is to become great power in the world in all of economic、political and military sides.
Part III : Through analysis of Japan's appeal to become a great political power, and the limitation of the means to achieve their aspiration, and the process of achieving this aspirations, I want to analyze the trends of the future development of the Japan-US alliance: On one hand, Japanese special historical status and the reality of international environmental determines the limitation of the means to achieve their aspiration .all the possible diplomatic means it can uses are all related to the United States, so Japan can not shake off the influence of the United States to go after its goal independently. This means that the Japan-US alliance will be continued for a long time; On the other hand, the goal of becoming a great political power can not be attained in one step, it will need a long historical process. in this process, we should analyze the dynamics of Japan-US relations, should pay attention to the new trend of Japan-US alliance's change . In the framework of the “Security Treaty Between Japan and the United States of America”,with Japan's constantly advancing on the path to a great political power, Japan's and the United States' respective gravity will arise to quantitative change quietly. This new trend is reflected in this: with the time on and mutual strategy needs, it will broaden the applied scope of the Japan-US alliance, and the trend of globalizing is clearer and clearer. On the other hand, with the game and constant choice between the goal of becoming a political power and the behavior to maintain the Japan-US alliance, Japan’s independent is increasing constantly.