1972 年, 随着中美关系的改善, 中日两国关系也日趋正常, 并很快建立了外交关系。由于建交时中国政府放弃了政府间的战争赔偿, 因而对中国的日本政府开发援助ODA 并不是以赔款开始。通过中日双方的一系列外交工作, 1979 年, 当时日本的大平正方首相提出, 为支援中国的经济改革开放政策, 日本愿意向中国提供日元借款, 并向中方列出自1979 年起5 年提供 3000 亿日元的日元借款计划意向。日本政府开发援助ODA 早期是以三种渠道通过中国政府三个部门进入中国的。第一, 技术援助是通过中国文化部科技厅实施的。第二, 无偿资金援助是通过中国对外经济贸易部实施的。主要的还是第三, 即通过中国财政部实施的有偿资金援助, 也就是日元借款。由于日本对中国的政府开发援助最主要的是日元借款, 而且时间长、数量较大, 因而在论及日本政府开发援助ODA 时, 也多以日元借款为主。日元借款自1979年以来, 大都采用 5 年一次式。
第三部分主要阐述了日本对华ＯＤＡ的政策调整及调整背景与原因。首先对日本对华ODA从开始提供至今作出的调整做了分析，对ODA的实效和存在问题做了分析。特别是1992年和2003年日本对《ODA大纲》的修改，主要体现为五个方面：第一 ,日本大幅削减 ODA 总额。第二 ,2003年《ODA 大纲》明确提出了日本 ODA 的目的 ,即“为国际社会的和平与发展做出贡献”,以此来 “确保我国的安全与繁荣”。 第三 ,2003年《ODA 大纲》的政治色彩更加浓厚。第四 ,日本不再全面实施 ODA ,而是将亚洲地区作为实施 ODA 重点地区。第五,2003年《ODA 大纲》改变了 ODA 实施方式。又分析了日本政府对ODA作出重大调整的原因分析
In 1972 , with the improvement of the Sino - American relationship, relations between Japan and China also gradually became normal, and they built up the diplomatic relationship very quickly .Because of the diplomatic relationship , the Chinese government gave up the war indemnification of the Japanese government, so the Japanese government's ODA(Official Development Assistance) to China did not start with the indemnity .Through a series of diplomatic service ,in 1979, the Japanese prime minister put forward that in support of China's economic reform and opening policy, Japan would like to provide funds and show the intention to provide 300billion Jp .yen during the next 5 years since 1979 to China. The ODA plan entered China through three departments of China's government with three kinds of outlets . First, the technique aid carried out through the science and technology of Chinese cultural section. Second, the gratis funds worked out through China Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation. Last but not least, it carried out through a Chinese Ministry of Finance department which was in essence to borrow yen funds. Because the main means for Japan to aid China was to lend longtime and large amount funds which contributed to the main part of ODA, they adopted a type of 5 years he yen funds since 1979.
In August 2003, the meetings of the Cabinet passed 《Official Development Assistance Charter 》 ( namely 《 ODA Charter 》 ).This outline based on the modification of the 1992 《 ODA Charter 》 .The publicity of the 2003 《 ODA Charter 》originally on the adjustment of the90's old version .This adjustment reflected Japan's strategic adjustment and the diplomatic direction to a large extent. Along with the adjustment of ODA, it's various functions also took place, which was actually a blade sword that not only promoted two countries communication and cooperation but also prevented and limited China's development.
The thesis analyses the definition and character of the Japanese DA to China which is the breakthrough point .Meanwhile, after the adjustment of the Japanese government’s ODA to china in recent years , the changement of Sino Japan relationship and the running of relations between Japan and China fortunes have been analyzed short and sweet. The paper has been divided into five parts:
The first part concludes the history of the Japanese ODA to China and its effects on Sino Japan relationship. Meanwhile, it states that the variations on major of the Japanese ODA Policy to China which could lead a certain influence on Sino Japan relationship.
The second part has issued the implications and sorts of the Japan’s ODA. The three principal characteristics of the Japan’s ODA to China which is the main part of the Japanese ODA policy : in the first place, it used to improve the level of communications ,civil aviation system, agriculture infrastructures and environmental engineering compared to that railway, wharf equipments, hydropower installations and municipal infrastructures were the major use of the loan from Japan at the beginning. In the second place, it can be inferred that the trend of the situation of Japanese economy , even more the world’s, from the implement of the Japan’s ODA to China. Besides, the China government purchases material and technology from Japan mainly which ruled by the Purchase Limit Rule of the Japan’s ODA, which leading a huge funds flows back Japan. Last of all, in order to realize the chief reasons for the Japanese ODA to China, the article gives clear arguments on the major factors focused on economy, politics and international environments.
The third part treats of readjustment of the Japanese ODA Policy , backgrounds and reasons .First of all, it illuminates the readjustment of the Japanese ODA Policy at any time in the term thus far, especially the modification of 《 ODA Charter 》 in 1992 and 2000 which is represented in five principal parts. Firstly, Japan cut the ODA total amount sharply. Secondly, 《 ODA Charter 》 in 2003 advanced the Japanese ODA’s intention which is to international peace and development in order to ensure Japanese safety and prosperity. Thirdly, the political tint of 《 ODA Charter 》 in 2003 becomes denser .Fourthly, Japan took Asia as the priority area rather than in full operation of ODA. Finally, 《 ODA Charter 》 in 2003 not only transformed implement pattern but also construed rectifiable wherefores .
The fourth part mainly analyses the influence of the ODA policy which Japan bears on China. First, it defines the significance of the Japanese ODA to China. And then, it indicates some problems which are consisted in the ODA policy. Finally, a resolution on the effect of the reducing of the yen loan to China and the changing of external assistant point is placed there.
Ultimately, as a conclusion, it fingers that the Japanese ODA to China undoubtedly does a huge contribution to our economic. But recently years, Japan began to reducing the ODA offer. Presently, relations between Japan and China have becoming an attentive topic of the world. And the unequilibrium between inactive political and prosperous economical intercourse is turning into the mainstream of estimating relations between Japan and China even more. Under the background of a inactive political relation, keeping a prosperous economic relation between Japan and China is becoming more difficult. China and Japan should try their best to increase the active elements between the two sides, restrain the frictions, expand the common benefit, so that to drive relations between Japan and China into a better orientation.