日本对华ODA政策与中日关系/

2019-05-05 03:15:57

日本 China Japanese Japan ODA



1972 年, 随着中美关系的改善, 中日两国关系也日趋正常, 并很快建立了外交关系。由于建交时中国政府放弃了政府间的战争赔偿, 因而对中国的日本政府开发援助ODA 并不是以赔款开始。通过中日双方的一系列外交工作, 1979 年, 当时日本的大平正方首相提出, 为支援中国的经济改革开放政策, 日本愿意向中国提供日元借款, 并向中方列出自1979 年起5 年提供 3000 亿日元的日元借款计划意向。日本政府开发援助ODA 早期是以三种渠道通过中国政府三个部门进入中国的。第一, 技术援助是通过中国文化部科技厅实施的。第二, 无偿资金援助是通过中国对外经济贸易部实施的。主要的还是第三, 即通过中国财政部实施的有偿资金援助, 也就是日元借款。由于日本对中国的政府开发援助最主要的是日元借款, 而且时间长、数量较大, 因而在论及日本政府开发援助ODA 时, 也多以日元借款为主。日元借款自1979年以来, 大都采用 5 年一次式。
2003年8月,日本内阁会议通过了《政府开发援助大纲》(即《ODA大纲》)。这个大纲是在1992年《ODA大纲》的基础上修改完成的。2003年《ODA大纲》的出台是日本政府继上世纪90年代初开始调整ODA政策后,再一次对ODA政策作出的调整。这次调整在很大程度上反映了日本在新世纪的战略调整及外交方向,随着日本ODA政策的调整,日本对华ODA的作用也发生了变化,成为一柄既促进两国交往与合作,又防范与限制中国发展的“双刃剑”。
本文试以日本对华ODA为切入点,分析日本对华ODA的含义、特点以及日本政府近年来对对华ODA做出调整后,对中日关系的影响及中日关系的未来走向做以简要的分析。全文共分五部分:
第一部分前言,简要概述了日本对华ODA的研究意义和研究现状,并指出日本政府对ODA作出调整以及援助重点的变化,会对中日关系带来一定的影响。
第二部分主要介绍了日本政府ODA的含义及分类。其中对华ODA是日本政府ODA的重要组成部分,主要特点表现为三方面:第一,最初的日元借款多用于铁路设施、港湾码头设施、水电设施及城市基础设施的建设。随后,逐步深入到通讯设施、民用航空系统、农业基础设施及环境保护工程。第二,从对中国的ODA的实施中也可以看出日本经济甚至世界经济的走向。第三,由于日本ODA实行采购国限制制度,中方的材料、技术的购入多限于在日本进行,因而大部分资金又回流日本。还分别从经济、政治外交以及当时的国际环境等方面阐述了日本对华提供ODA的主要原因。
第三部分主要阐述了日本对华ODA的政策调整及调整背景与原因。首先对日本对华ODA从开始提供至今作出的调整做了分析,对ODA的实效和存在问题做了分析。特别是1992年和2003年日本对《ODA大纲》的修改,主要体现为五个方面:第一 ,日本大幅削减 ODA 总额。第二 ,2003年《ODA 大纲》明确提出了日本 ODA 的目的 ,即“为国际社会的和平与发展做出贡献”,以此来 “确保我国的安全与繁荣”。 第三 ,2003年《ODA 大纲》的政治色彩更加浓厚。第四 ,日本不再全面实施 ODA ,而是将亚洲地区作为实施 ODA 重点地区。第五,2003年《ODA 大纲》改变了 ODA 实施方式。又分析了日本政府对ODA作出重大调整的原因分析
第四部分主要分析日本对华ODA政策的调整对中日关系的影响。首先阐述日本调整对华ODA政策的过程也是是中日关系的调整过程。然后提出了日本调整对华ODA政策是中日关系正常发展的必经阶段。最后分析了日本削减对华日元贷款及外援重点转向的影响。
最后,作为结论指出日本对华ODA确实为中国经济做出了不小的贡献。但是近几年,日本开始减少对中国的政府开发援助。目前,中日关系已成为各界高度关注的话题,“政冷经热”也日益成为评价中日关系现状的主流观点。在中日政治关系趋“冷”的背景下,中日经济关系要维持其“热”也越来越难。中日双方应共同努力,不断增大两国间的积极因素,抑制摩擦,扩大共同利益,促使中日关系向好的方面发展。



In 1972 , with the improvement of the Sino - American relationship, relations between Japan and China also gradually became normal, and they built up the diplomatic relationship very quickly .Because of the diplomatic relationship , the Chinese government gave up the war indemnification of the Japanese government, so the Japanese government's ODA(Official Development Assistance) to China did not start with the indemnity .Through a series of diplomatic service ,in 1979, the Japanese prime minister put forward that in support of China's economic reform and opening policy, Japan would like to provide funds and show the intention to provide 300billion Jp .yen during the next 5 years since 1979 to China. The ODA plan entered China through three departments of China's government with three kinds of outlets . First, the technique aid carried out through the science and technology of Chinese cultural section. Second, the gratis funds worked out through China Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation. Last but not least, it carried out through a Chinese Ministry of Finance department which was in essence to borrow yen funds. Because the main means for Japan to aid China was to lend longtime and large amount funds which contributed to the main part of ODA, they adopted a type of 5 years he yen funds since 1979.
In August 2003, the meetings of the Cabinet passed 《Official Development Assistance Charter 》 ( namely 《 ODA Charter 》 ).This outline based on the modification of the 1992 《 ODA Charter 》 .The publicity of the 2003 《 ODA Charter 》originally on the adjustment of the90's old version .This adjustment reflected Japan's strategic adjustment and the diplomatic direction to a large extent. Along with the adjustment of ODA, it's various functions also took place, which was actually a blade sword that not only promoted two countries communication and cooperation but also prevented and limited China's development.
The thesis analyses the definition and character of the Japanese DA to China which is the breakthrough point .Meanwhile, after the adjustment of the Japanese government’s ODA to china in recent years , the changement of Sino Japan relationship and the running of relations between Japan and China fortunes have been analyzed short and sweet. The paper has been divided into five parts:
The first part concludes the history of the Japanese ODA to China and its effects on Sino Japan relationship. Meanwhile, it states that the variations on major of the Japanese ODA Policy to China which could lead a certain influence on Sino Japan relationship.
The second part has issued the implications and sorts of the Japan’s ODA. The three principal characteristics of the Japan’s ODA to China which is the main part of the Japanese ODA policy : in the first place, it used to improve the level of communications ,civil aviation system, agriculture infrastructures and environmental engineering compared to that railway, wharf equipments, hydropower installations and municipal infrastructures were the major use of the loan from Japan at the beginning. In the second place, it can be inferred that the trend of the situation of Japanese economy , even more the world’s, from the implement of the Japan’s ODA to China. Besides, the China government purchases material and technology from Japan mainly which ruled by the Purchase Limit Rule of the Japan’s ODA, which leading a huge funds flows back Japan. Last of all, in order to realize the chief reasons for the Japanese ODA to China, the article gives clear arguments on the major factors focused on economy, politics and international environments.
The third part treats of readjustment of the Japanese ODA Policy , backgrounds and reasons .First of all, it illuminates the readjustment of the Japanese ODA Policy at any time in the term thus far, especially the modification of 《 ODA Charter 》 in 1992 and 2000 which is represented in five principal parts. Firstly, Japan cut the ODA total amount sharply. Secondly, 《 ODA Charter 》 in 2003 advanced the Japanese ODA’s intention which is to international peace and development in order to ensure Japanese safety and prosperity. Thirdly, the political tint of 《 ODA Charter 》 in 2003 becomes denser .Fourthly, Japan took Asia as the priority area rather than in full operation of ODA. Finally, 《 ODA Charter 》 in 2003 not only transformed implement pattern but also construed rectifiable wherefores .
The fourth part mainly analyses the influence of the ODA policy which Japan bears on China. First, it defines the significance of the Japanese ODA to China. And then, it indicates some problems which are consisted in the ODA policy. Finally, a resolution on the effect of the reducing of the yen loan to China and the changing of external assistant point is placed there.
Ultimately, as a conclusion, it fingers that the Japanese ODA to China undoubtedly does a huge contribution to our economic. But recently years, Japan began to reducing the ODA offer. Presently, relations between Japan and China have becoming an attentive topic of the world. And the unequilibrium between inactive political and prosperous economical intercourse is turning into the mainstream of estimating relations between Japan and China even more. Under the background of a inactive political relation, keeping a prosperous economic relation between Japan and China is becoming more difficult. China and Japan should try their best to increase the active elements between the two sides, restrain the frictions, expand the common benefit, so that to drive relations between Japan and China into a better orientation.