1905---1910年日美争夺中国东北问题研究/

2019-05-05 03:10:22

government China Japan America Northeast



论文摘要
日俄战争后,帝国主义在中国东北的势力格局得到了重组,日本从俄国手中获得了“南满”,并且从清政府那里讹诈到更多的权益。日美矛盾代替日俄矛盾成为这一地区帝国主义的主要矛盾。为争夺中国东北,日美之间进行了一系列的争夺,日美斗争集中体现了这一时期东北亚地区错综复杂的国际关系。
本文比较全面地概括了1905—1910年日美争夺中国东北斗争的全过程,在此基础上阐述这一斗争对当时中日关系带来的影响,具体表现在清政府的“联美抵日”政策以及斗争对日本侵华的影响。
全文共分为六个部分。
第一部分,日俄战争和《朴茨茅斯条约》。中国东北是19世纪末20世纪初众多帝国主义国家展开激烈争夺的重要舞台。由于争夺中国东北和在朝鲜矛盾的激化,日、俄两国在远东展开了一场重新瓜分势力范围的帝国主义掠夺性战争。日俄战争中,日本节节胜利,但经过一年多的消耗战后,人力、物力、财力已严重匮乏,而俄国也希望及早结束战争。在美国总统西奥多·罗斯福的调停下,日、俄两国在美国的朴茨茅斯城举行媾和会议,最后两国签定了《朴茨茅斯条约》。根据该条约,日本从俄国手中获得了大连、旅顺、长春至旅顺口段铁路,并使朝鲜沦为保护国。《朴茨茅斯条约》的签订标志着俄国独霸中国东北局面的结束和日俄分踞“满洲”南北的开始。
第二部分,日俄战争后日本在中国东北的扩张。《朴茨茅斯条约》签订后,日本为了巩固“胜利果实”,伺机攫取新的侵略权益,迫不急待地与清政府进行交涉。1905年12月,日本与清政府缔结了《中日会议东三省事宜条约》。通过该条约,日本使其从朴茨茅斯条约中得到的有关中国东北的权益“合法”化,同时又得到了一系列新利权。《中日会议东三省事宜条约》签订后,日本政府设立了“满洲经营调查委员会”,负责研究日本侵略中国东北的政策,审议和起草“经营满洲”的计划和方案。1906年6月,日本政府设立了“南满洲铁道株式会社”。“满铁”实际上为日本政府的官方机构,其主要人事任命和业务活动都要听从于日本政府。此外,日本还在“南满”设立了关东都督府。在侵略中国东北的过程中,“满铁”和关东都督府成为日本政府最为重要的工具。
第三部分,日美矛盾的形成。20世纪初的中国东北对美国有着较大的利害关系,这一时期美国的对华贸易主要集中在中国东北地区。由于俄国企图独占中国东北,它与日、美两国的关系日趋紧张。美国积极支持日本的反俄政策,并唆使日本攻击俄国。在日俄战争中,美国向日本提供了巨大的政治、经济、军事上的支持,同时也乘机向中国东北大力扩张势力。但日俄战争后,随着在中国东北势力的强化,日本开始推行“关闭”“满洲”政策,拒绝“满洲”对他国开放,这严重地损害了美国在中国东北的工商业利益,导致了日美两国关系的日益恶化。
第四部分,日美争夺中国东北斗争的展开。日俄战争后,为了与日本争夺中国东北的霸权,美国也加强向中国东北扩张。美国首先推出了“哈里曼计划”。“美国铁路大王”哈里曼为了实现其“环球铁路”计划,打算与日本共同经营“满铁”。起初,日本政府与哈里曼签订了共同经营“满铁”的草合同。但该合同遭到了日本外相小村寿太郎的极力反对,日本政府最终废除了该草合同。“哈里曼计划”遂破产。接着,美国又策划在中国东北修建新法铁路、锦瑷铁路,后又提出了旨在实现“满洲铁路中立化”的“诺克斯计划”,企图以此来打破“满铁”的垄断,但美国所作出的努力都一一失败。
第五部分,清政府的“联美抵日”政策。面对日本在中国东北大肆扩张所造成的东三省局势的恶化,清政府实行东三省改制,以加强对地方的实际控制。同时,清政府深知无法公开与日本抗争,只得把希望寄托于他国。而美国“退还”庚款恰恰赢得了清政府的好感,清政府遂联合美国,妄想假借其强大资本在东北修筑铁路,设立东三省银行,推行东三省实业与币制改革,以抵制日本势力的扩展。但由于日本以种种借口从中阻挠,再加上清政府的软弱、美国的妥协退让,清政府无法将这些计划付诸实施。
第六部分,日美争夺中国东北对日本侵华的影响。日美围绕中国东北展开的一系列激烈斗争,最终都以美国的失败而告终,但却给日本侵华带来了一系列影响。为了对付美国,日本在侵华政策上进行了一系列调整。日本政府以侵略中国东北为中心,在国际上采取结盟策略,最大程度地孤立美国,以争取在与美国的斗争中占有更有利的地位。在数年时间内,日本与英国签订了第二次同盟条约、第三次同盟条约,与法国签订了日法协定,与俄国签订了两次协定、两次密约,并实现了吞并朝鲜。美国是打着“门户开放”、“机会均等”这样一个为帝国主义列强所公认的大旗向中国东北扩张的,因此日本为了避免成为列强联合压制的对象,也不得不宣布愿意在中国东北执行门户开放政策,尊重“工商业机会均等”主义。实际上,随着在中国东北势力的逐渐增强,日本在东北问题上采取口头上表示赞成门户开放,在行动上却以逐步加强控制来排挤美国,采取破坏“机会均等”主义的“外松内紧”策略,加紧对东北铁路、矿产资源及中朝边界领土的掠夺。同时,日美争夺中国东北是一个既斗争又妥协的过程,在争夺过程中美国在客观上起到了对日本的牵制作用,它不允许日本走俄国的老路,直接出兵占领中国东北,使日本被迫放慢了将中国沦为殖民地的步伐。



Abstract

After Russo-Japanese War, imperialist forces in Northeast China has been the pattern of being restructed. Japan gained South Manchuria from the hand of Russia, and blackmailed more rights from the Qing government. The contradiction between Japan and America became the main imperialist contradictions instead of the Japan-Russia contradiction in the region. To vie for the Northeast China, the United States conducted a series of rivalries with Japan. The struggle between Japan and the United States embodied the complicated international relations of the Northeast Asia in the period.
This thesis generalizes the whole process of the struggle between Japan and the United States during 1905 -- 1910 , and elaborates its impact on China-Japan relations, as reflected in the Qing government "uniting America to resist Japan" policy, and the struggle’s influence on the Japanese invasion to China.
The full thesis is divided into six parts.
Part I, Russo-Japanese War and the "Portsmouth Treaty". Northeast China is the important stage of imperialist intense rivalries in the end of 19th century and early 20th century. As for the intensification of the contradictions for contesting Northeast China and Korea, Japan and Russia in the Far East started a predatory imperialist war to re-divide spheres of influence .In Russo-Japanese War, Japan frequently won the victories. But after more than a year’s consumption, Japan had serious dificiency in manpower, material resources and finance, and also Russia hoped the war end early. In America President Theodore Roosevelt's mediation, Japan and Russia held in the US city of Portsmouth to make peace, and finally the two countries signed "Portsmouth Treaty". Under the treaty, Japan gained Dalian, Arther ,the railway from Changchun to Port Arther from Russia, and made Korea its protectorate. The signment of Portsmouth treaty marked the end of Russia’s domination in Northeast China and the start of holding the south and the north of "Manchuria" by Japan and Russia.
Part II, Japan’s expansion in Northeast China after Russo-Japanese War.After the signment of "Portsmouth Treaty", Japan agog intervened with the Qing government in order to consolidate the "fruits of victory" and wait for the acquisition of new aggression interests. In December 1905, Japan and the Qing government concluded " The Peking treaty " . Under the treaty, Japan made the rights and interests on Northeast China obtaining from Portsmouth Treaty legitimated, and also won a series of new rights.After the signment of " The Peking treaty " , Japanese government established Manchuria management investigating committee, being responsible for a research on policies of Japan’s invading Northeast China , deliberating and drafting the plan and the project of"conducting Manchuria ". In June 1906, Japanese government established the " South Manchuria Raiway Company". "Manchuria Raiway " was actually the official organization of Japanese government, and its main personnel ordination and business activities all deferred to Japanese government.In addition, Japan constituted the Dutch East Indies. In the process of invading Northeast China, "South Manchurian Rairoad Company" and the Dutch East Indies became the most important tools of Japanese government.
The third part, the formation of the contradiction between Japan and the United States . Northeast China had important relations with the United States at the beginning of 20th century. America’s trade to China mainly concentrated in this area . Had been attempting to monopolize Northeast China, Russia became gradually hostile with Japan and the United States. America actively supported Japan’s anti- Russia policy, and goaded Japan to attack Russia. During Russo-Japanese War, the United States provided Japan huge support in politics, economy and military, and also seized an opportunity to extend influence strongly toward Northeast China. But after Russo-Japanese War, along with the enhance of influence in Northeast China, Japan began to promote a policy of "close" the door of Manchuria, refusing open it to the another country. This hit seriously the United States of industry and business interests in Northeast China, causing this two countries’relationship deteriorate.
The fourth part, the development of the struggle of vying for Northeast China between Japan and America. After Russo-Japanese War, in order to contest with Japan for the hegemony Northeast China, the United States strengthend to extend . The United States released "Harriman Plan" first. "American Railroad King" Harriman planned to conduct " Manchurian Rairoad " with Japan together for carrying out its "round-the-world railroad" plan. At first, Japanese government concluded a primary contract to conduct " Manchurian Rairoad " with Japan together. But that contract encountered strong opposition from Japanese Foreign Minister Komura. The Japanese government was end to rescind the contract. Immediately after , the United States planned to build two railroads, one from Xin Min to Fa Ku, the other from Jin Zhou to Ai Hui. Since that, it put forward " Knox Plan" aiming at achieving "Neutralization of Raiways in Manchuria " and breaking Manchurian Rairoad’s domination in Manchuria. But these efforts all failed.
The fifth part, Qing government’s policy of associating with America. Facing the situations’depravation of thr three provinces in Northeast China resulting from Japan expanding rabidly, Qing government practiced to change administration system in Northeast China to strengthen the actual control. In the meantime, Qing government has realized that can't contend with Japan publicly, having had to consign a hope in other country. Furthmore , America sent back Boxer Indemnity to Qing government and won its favor. Since Qing government associated with America with the crazy idea to make use of its great capital to build railroads in Northeast China , establish the three provinces bank, and promote their industries and monetary system reform in order to resist the expansion of Japan influence. But Japan put grit in the machine with various pleas. Qing government was weak, and America compromised with Japan. Hence Qing government couldn't carry out its plans.
The sixth part, the influence of vying for Northeast China between Japan and America on Japan invasion to China. Aiming at vying for Northeast China, Japan and America developed struggles. Though America failed eventually, they brought a series of influence to Japan invading China. For dealing with the United States, Japan has adjusted a lot in policies of invading China. The Japanese government took invading Northeast China as the center, adapting to form alliance strategy among nations, in order to make America isolated with the biggest degree and occupy a more beneficial position in the conflict with the United States. In few years, Japan signed the second and the third alliance treaty with England, a pact with France, two pacts and two secret agreements with Russia, and annexed North Korea by force. America extended toward Northeast China under the "Open Door", "Equal Opportunity" which was confessed by imperialist countries. So in order not to become the object that they suppress together, Japan has had to declare that it would like to carry out the Open Door Policy in Northeast China, and respect "industry and business equal opportunity" doctrine. Actually, along with the gradually swelling of influence in Northeast China, Japan approved orally on the Open Door Policy, but discriminated against America by strengthening control. It adopted a strategy which was loose in and tight out to plunder raiway,mine resource and territory in frontier between China and North Korea. At the same time , the contention for Northeast China between Japan and America was a process which was full of struggles and compromises. In this process America objectively had the action of containing Japan’s expansion. It disapproved of Japan carrying on with the old means of Russia, taking up Northeast China by force directly. It made Japan compelled to advance slowly to make China its colony.