After Russo-Japanese War, imperialist forces in Northeast China has been the pattern of being restructed. Japan gained South Manchuria from the hand of Russia, and blackmailed more rights from the Qing government. The contradiction between Japan and America became the main imperialist contradictions instead of the Japan-Russia contradiction in the region. To vie for the Northeast China, the United States conducted a series of rivalries with Japan. The struggle between Japan and the United States embodied the complicated international relations of the Northeast Asia in the period.
This thesis generalizes the whole process of the struggle between Japan and the United States during 1905 -- 1910 , and elaborates its impact on China-Japan relations, as reflected in the Qing government "uniting America to resist Japan" policy, and the struggle’s influence on the Japanese invasion to China.
The full thesis is divided into six parts.
Part I, Russo-Japanese War and the "Portsmouth Treaty". Northeast China is the important stage of imperialist intense rivalries in the end of 19th century and early 20th century. As for the intensification of the contradictions for contesting Northeast China and Korea, Japan and Russia in the Far East started a predatory imperialist war to re-divide spheres of influence .In Russo-Japanese War, Japan frequently won the victories. But after more than a year’s consumption, Japan had serious dificiency in manpower, material resources and finance, and also Russia hoped the war end early. In America President Theodore Roosevelt's mediation, Japan and Russia held in the US city of Portsmouth to make peace, and finally the two countries signed "Portsmouth Treaty". Under the treaty, Japan gained Dalian, Arther ,the railway from Changchun to Port Arther from Russia, and made Korea its protectorate. The signment of Portsmouth treaty marked the end of Russia’s domination in Northeast China and the start of holding the south and the north of "Manchuria" by Japan and Russia.
Part II, Japan’s expansion in Northeast China after Russo-Japanese War.After the signment of "Portsmouth Treaty", Japan agog intervened with the Qing government in order to consolidate the "fruits of victory" and wait for the acquisition of new aggression interests. In December 1905, Japan and the Qing government concluded " The Peking treaty " . Under the treaty, Japan made the rights and interests on Northeast China obtaining from Portsmouth Treaty legitimated, and also won a series of new rights.After the signment of " The Peking treaty " , Japanese government established Manchuria management investigating committee, being responsible for a research on policies of Japan’s invading Northeast China , deliberating and drafting the plan and the project of"conducting Manchuria ". In June 1906, Japanese government established the " South Manchuria Raiway Company". "Manchuria Raiway " was actually the official organization of Japanese government, and its main personnel ordination and business activities all deferred to Japanese government.In addition, Japan constituted the Dutch East Indies. In the process of invading Northeast China, "South Manchurian Rairoad Company" and the Dutch East Indies became the most important tools of Japanese government.
The third part, the formation of the contradiction between Japan and the United States . Northeast China had important relations with the United States at the beginning of 20th century. America’s trade to China mainly concentrated in this area . Had been attempting to monopolize Northeast China, Russia became gradually hostile with Japan and the United States. America actively supported Japan’s anti- Russia policy, and goaded Japan to attack Russia. During Russo-Japanese War, the United States provided Japan huge support in politics, economy and military, and also seized an opportunity to extend influence strongly toward Northeast China. But after Russo-Japanese War, along with the enhance of influence in Northeast China, Japan began to promote a policy of "close" the door of Manchuria, refusing open it to the another country. This hit seriously the United States of industry and business interests in Northeast China, causing this two countries’relationship deteriorate.
The fourth part, the development of the struggle of vying for Northeast China between Japan and America. After Russo-Japanese War, in order to contest with Japan for the hegemony Northeast China, the United States strengthend to extend . The United States released "Harriman Plan" first. "American Railroad King" Harriman planned to conduct " Manchurian Rairoad " with Japan together for carrying out its "round-the-world railroad" plan. At first, Japanese government concluded a primary contract to conduct " Manchurian Rairoad " with Japan together. But that contract encountered strong opposition from Japanese Foreign Minister Komura. The Japanese government was end to rescind the contract. Immediately after , the United States planned to build two railroads, one from Xin Min to Fa Ku, the other from Jin Zhou to Ai Hui. Since that, it put forward " Knox Plan" aiming at achieving "Neutralization of Raiways in Manchuria " and breaking Manchurian Rairoad’s domination in Manchuria. But these efforts all failed.
The fifth part, Qing government’s policy of associating with America. Facing the situations’depravation of thr three provinces in Northeast China resulting from Japan expanding rabidly, Qing government practiced to change administration system in Northeast China to strengthen the actual control. In the meantime, Qing government has realized that can't contend with Japan publicly, having had to consign a hope in other country. Furthmore , America sent back Boxer Indemnity to Qing government and won its favor. Since Qing government associated with America with the crazy idea to make use of its great capital to build railroads in Northeast China , establish the three provinces bank, and promote their industries and monetary system reform in order to resist the expansion of Japan influence. But Japan put grit in the machine with various pleas. Qing government was weak, and America compromised with Japan. Hence Qing government couldn't carry out its plans.
The sixth part, the influence of vying for Northeast China between Japan and America on Japan invasion to China. Aiming at vying for Northeast China, Japan and America developed struggles. Though America failed eventually, they brought a series of influence to Japan invading China. For dealing with the United States, Japan has adjusted a lot in policies of invading China. The Japanese government took invading Northeast China as the center, adapting to form alliance strategy among nations, in order to make America isolated with the biggest degree and occupy a more beneficial position in the conflict with the United States. In few years, Japan signed the second and the third alliance treaty with England, a pact with France, two pacts and two secret agreements with Russia, and annexed North Korea by force. America extended toward Northeast China under the "Open Door", "Equal Opportunity" which was confessed by imperialist countries. So in order not to become the object that they suppress together, Japan has had to declare that it would like to carry out the Open Door Policy in Northeast China, and respect "industry and business equal opportunity" doctrine. Actually, along with the gradually swelling of influence in Northeast China, Japan approved orally on the Open Door Policy, but discriminated against America by strengthening control. It adopted a strategy which was loose in and tight out to plunder raiway,mine resource and territory in frontier between China and North Korea. At the same time , the contention for Northeast China between Japan and America was a process which was full of struggles and compromises. In this process America objectively had the action of containing Japan’s expansion. It disapproved of Japan carrying on with the old means of Russia, taking up Northeast China by force directly. It made Japan compelled to advance slowly to make China its colony.