甲午战争时期日本对中国的情报活动/

2019-05-01 22:52:32

China Japanese intelligence Japan War



中文摘要
甲午战争是日本发动的侵略中国的战争,这场战争最终以日本迫使清政府签订不平等条约而宣告结束。日本之所以能够取得这场战争的胜利,原因是多方面的,其中,详细而准确的情报是日本取得甲午战争胜利的重要条件之一。本文旨在通过考察日本向中国派遣情报人员的背景、活动情况,勾勒出日本为了对华发动战争以各种手段和名目向中国派遣大批情报人员,全面搜集中国情报的图景,揭示情报对日本侵华方针的制定、战争进程及结果的重大作用。
日本重视情报工作,明治维新之后,日本以实行对外扩张为基本国策,其侵略矛头直指中国。为了日后发动对华侵略战争做准备,日本当局除利用外交机会进行公开考察中国兵要地志等情报活动外,更重要的也是对中日两国影响更大的就是日本向中国派遣大批间谍,并在中国大陆设立间谍机构,就地培养谍报人员,从事搜集情报的工作。这些间谍以各种身份做掩护,踏遍了中国大地,全方面地搜集中国的情报。此外,在日本政府和资产阶级政党支持、煽动下,19世纪80年代初,日本还出现了一批有纲领、有组织的右翼团体。这些右翼团体对外支持明治政府的侵略扩张政策,策动大批“大陆浪人”前来中国,暗中大力协助日本间谍特务和外交官们开展情报调查活动。这些情报对日本侵华政策的制定起到了巨大的作用。战争爆发后,日本在中国留下了一些实力较强的间谍,这些间谍通过亲临现场的军事侦察及利用汉奸等手段获取了清军大量可靠的情报,这些情报有力地保证了日军在战争中的顺利推进,并最终取得战争的胜利。
与日本重视情报、主动获得情报的态度相反,清政府不但不主动去了解日本的动态,加强对日防范,反而不能保守自己的军事秘密,甚至对日谍加以保护,更有甚者,在双方关系紧张,战争乌云已经笼罩在自己头上时,不仅不去做任何准备,而且把日军正需要的情报送到其眼前。清朝统治集团一心想避免战争,把和平的希望寄托在保护日本间谍、纵容日本侵略中国的列强身上。这种忽视情报,消极避战的态度,使中国对日本的侵略意图不明,再加上缺少防谍意识,军事秘密屡屡外泄。清政府的腐败使中国始终处于情报劣势地位,而这种情报的劣势使得清军仓促应战,屡战屡败,始终处于被动的境地,并最终输掉了这场战争,造成了“马关奇辱”。
那么,日本何以能够准确地测知大清帝国的行动方向、兵力部署、防守态势、地形地物?原因是多方面的,从主观上讲,日本重视对中国的情报搜集,重视间谍的作用,长期窥测、窃取、搜集中国军事政治情报与兵要地理情况。从客观上讲,是由于清帝国情报意识淡漠,不仅不能获得日本方面的情报,洞悉日本的侵略意图,反而为日本搜集中国的情报大开方便之门。此外,各列强对日本的袒护与纵容也是日本情报活动取得成功的重要原因。
文章详细分析了日本在战前、战中对中国成功的情报活动,阐释了情报与日本侵华战略战术方针的制定之间的内在联系,认为随着日本对中国调查的不断深入,情报的逐渐丰富,日本的侵华计划逐步拟定并具体化。积极的对华情报活动是日本制定“切实可行”的侵华策略的前提条件,也就是说详细而准确的对华情报是日本制定侵华政策、发动侵华战争并最终取得甲午战争胜利的重要条件。




Abstract
The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 is an aggression against China Launched by Japan. The war ended by an imparity treaty that was signed by Qing dynasty forced by Japan. The reason that Japan won the war lay in many aspects, and among them was exact and minute intelligence of Japan about China. The purpose of this thesis is to reveal the effect of intelligence on the aggressive policy made by Japan against China, the process of The Sino-Japanese war of 1894-1895 and the result of the war through describing the background, on which Japan sent intelligence agent to China by all kinds of items to collect intelligence, and their successful intelligence activities in China.
Japan paid attention to the intelligence work. After Meiji Restoration, Japan regarded “the policy of mainland” as its basic national policy. Japan pointed the aggressive aim to China. In order to prepare for the aggressive war against China, Japanese government took the advantage of the open diplomatic opportunity to take part in intelligence activities. Besides, more important and influential intelligence activities was taken through sending large numbers of espionages to China, and furthermore, with the establishment of agencies in China. These Japanese spies who posed as diplomats, businessmen, and students, disguised themselves as native Chinese, collected information in all parts of China in order to prepare for the aggressive war against it. Moreover, there appeared in Japan a lot of organized right wing groups supported and agitated by Japan government and bourgeoisie Party in 1880s. These right wing groups supported the aggressive policy of Japanese government. They agitated large numbers of common people who lost their political position and privilege after Meiji Restoration to come to China to help Japanese spies and diplomats. All the intelligence Japanese government got played an important role in stipulating for the aggressive policy against China. When the Sino—Japanese War broke out, Japanese intelligence activities were even more widespread and played a very important role in a series of military campaigns. The effort gave a guarantee that the Japanese army could process smoothly and won the war in the end.
By contraries, China attaches little importance to intelligence and had little information on Japan. The Qing government didn’t taken the initiative to understand Japanese tendency, strengthen the safeguard against Japan; moreover, it couldn’t keep its own military secret, and furthermore, it protected the Japanese spies. And what is more, when the relationship between the two sides was becoming intensely, the Qing dynasty didn’t make any preparation, while delivers the intelligence Japanese forces needed. The Qing Dynasty government wanted to avoid the war. It reposed the hope for peace on those powers that protected the Japanese spies, tolerated Japan’s invading to China. Generally speaking, however, the Qing government was not effective at uncovering Japanese spies or keeping its military secrets. And under –estimated the coming war. The Qing dynasty was passive throughout the war.
The attitude of neglecting information and avoiding the war negatively caused China to be unclear of Japan's aggressive intention. And because of the lack of consciousness of guarding against Japanese spies, the military secret was released outside repeatedly. The corruption of Qing dynasty government causes China to be at the inferiority position of information. And this kind of position caused Qing dynasty army to accept war in haste, lost the battle repeatedly, and finally lost this war.
Then, how could Japan know accurately the activity of the Qing Dynasty government, the disposition of its troops, its defensive situation, and its terrain features? The reason is various. Subjectively, Japan paid great attention to the intelligence about China. It encouraged spies to detect, steal, and collects the military and political intelligence of China for a long time. Objectively, the Qing dynasty government didn’t paid attention to intelligence. It didn’t obtain the information of Japan, understand clearly the aggression intention of Japanese government, instead, it offered Japanese intelligence agent convenience to collects information of China. In addition, the successful intelligence activities of Japan in China lay in the tolerance of big powers with Japan
This article analyzes the successful intelligence activities of Japan pre-war and during the war about China and explains the intrinsic link between intelligence and the strategic and tactical policy of Japanese invasion on China. It views that with the in-depth survey of Japan to China and richness of Intelligence, the plans of Japan’s invasion of China was gradually developed and concretized. Japan's active intelligence activities about China are the prerequisite of the "practical" strategy made by Japan on aggressive war against China. In other words, detailed and accurate intelligence on China is the important condition of the policy of Japan's aggressive war against China and the eventual triumph.