表面塑性精加工机的研制/

2019-04-29 14:01:51

machine processing plastic precise 滚压



金属件平面的精密加工目前主要是采用磨削加工技术,该技术已是成熟的加工方法,并被普遍用于机械制造行业中。但在磨削加工中,砂轮的消耗是不可避免的,为了避免工件的磨削烧伤,还必须有冷却液的连续供给。此外,有色金属磨削时由于砂轮粘附堵塞致使磨削难以进行也是迄今尚未解决的难题。
金属平面塑性精密加工技术是金属塑性加工技术和精密加工技术在金属平面加工中的综合应用,根据金属在一定的条件下产生塑性变形的原理,使金属在滚动压力的作用下,产生连续局部塑性变形,从而改善和提高机械零件的最终表面质量和性能。
本论文是我的导师宋玉泉教授连续局部塑性精成形和精密加工总体研究的一个重要组成部分。论文首先是根据宋玉泉教授的实用新型专利“金属滚压平面塑性精成型装置”中所拟定的基于液压牛头刨床的金属平面塑性精加工机的设计方案,即以液压牛头刨床的滑枕运动作为X方向的动力机构,工作台的进给运动作为金属平面塑性精加工机的Y方向的运动,Z方向的进给运动装置及其控制系统自行设计制造。现在,Z方向的进给装置已经加工完成,液压牛头刨床改造设备也已安装调试完毕,为了将该技术转化为生产力,迫切需要研制平面滚压专用设备。宋老师经过潜心思索,提出了平面滚压专用设备的创新思想,机床两端可以同时加工,而且能够实现双向滚压,于是确立了表面塑性精加工机的基本方案和设计思路。表面塑性精加工机是根据金属平面滚压加工工艺的特点和要求,结合液压牛头刨床的工作特点,并在宋老师的创新思想指导下研制的,本文只是该机床设计的起步阶级,要转化成造价低、自动控制、运行稳定、使用性能好的生产样机,尚需进行大量的改进、补充和完善工作。
本论文在对所属研究领域的资料搜集和评述的前提下进行了如下的工作:根据国内外的研究成果及我们进行的实验,确定了滚压加工的工艺参数,明确了滚压工艺所要求执行运动的数量与特性,据此选择了满足工艺要求的传动形式,确定了表面塑性精加工机的总体设计方案;通过对滚压加工工艺和刨削加工工艺特点的比较,在液压牛头刨床的基础上,结合宋老师的创新思想,确定了表面塑性精加工机的整机结构,并绘制完成了三维装配图;进行了表面塑性精加工机液压系统的设计工作,绘制完成了液压系统图,在此基础上重点设计了双杆式活塞液压缸,同时选择了液压泵、液压阀等主要元件;进行了表面塑性精加工机工作台传动机构的设计,重点是对横向进给传动系统机械装置的进行了数控化改造。
表面塑性精加工机综合应用了机械技术、液压技术、电子技术和计算机技术。X方向上主运动为液压传动,具有调速范围较宽,速度平稳,自动换向冲击小等优点,光栅线位移传感器和计算机的应用能够精确测量和记录主运动速度,从而为滚压工艺实验过程中寻求滚压速度和滚压加工质量之间的关系提供了实验手段;Y方向上工作台进给运动以数控方式实现,满足了滚压加工对横向进给量的精度要求,而且能够进行对进给量的定量控制,为滚压加工工艺实验过程中寻求滚压进给量与滚压件表面质量之间的关系创造了条件;Z向微量进给装置及控制系统用以实现滚压加工时调整Z向的精确进给量,控制精度可达0.01mm,在滚压加工过程中通过力传感器测定滚压力的大小,并且可以调节竖直压下量和滚压力的大小。表面塑性精加工机的自动化程度较高,能够准确记录滚压加工过程中滚压速度、滚压力及所需时间,自动生成力—时间曲线、速度—时间曲线等。



The accurate processing of metal work piece plane mostly adopts abrasive machining technology in present, which has been mature processing ways and is used mostly in mechanical industry. However, the consume of emery wheel is unavoidable in the abrasive machining technology. In order to avoid the abrasive burning, the continuous supply of coolant is necessary. In the addition, it is the unsoluted difficulty until now that the paste and block of emery wheel make it difficult to continue in grinding nonferrous metal process.
The plastic and precise process technology for metal plane is the comprehensive applying for the metal plastic process technology and the precision process technology in the metal plane. According to the plastic deforming principle of metal under certain condition, metal would produce continuous and partial plastic deforming by rolling pressure, which change and improve the final surface quality and property.
The paper is the important component of overall research about serial and partial plastic-precise deforming and precise process, which is researched by my advisor-professor Song YuQuan. The paper is about the design plan of metal plane plastic and precise processing machine based on hydraulic shaping machine specified in professor Song YuQuan’s practical new type patent “the plastic and precise forming device”, that is to say, the taking the ram-moving of hydraulic shaping machine as X direction dynamic mechanism, the feeding movement of working platform as Y direction movement of the plastic and precise processing machine to metal plane, the feeding-movement device and its control system in Z direction are designed and produced by ourselves. Now, the control system in Z direction has already put the last hand to equip, and the reformation equipment of hydraulic shaping machine have already installed to adjust to try to complete. To turn into that technique productivity, it is necessary to research to manufacture special equipments of roller burnishing to plane. Professor Song put forward the innovation thought concerning the special equipments of roller burnishing to plane, that both ends of the tool machine can process at the same time and the tool machine can carry out the double direction to roller burnishing. Therefore, the basic plan and design idea of the plastic and precise processing machine for surface are specified. On the draft characteristic and demand of the plastic and precise processing, the plastic and precise processing machine for surface compounding with the working characteristic of hydraulic shaping machine is exploited by Professor Song's creative thought . This article is only the beginning of the tool machine design, so it still need a quantity of improvement, supplement and perfect work to turn into low price, automatic control, working steadily and excellent quality producing model machine.
On the premise data-collection and the appraisal of the research materials, the following works have been done in the paper. According to the domestic and international research results and the finished experiments , the craft parameters of roller burnishing processing are confirmed and the athletic quantity and characteristics of the roller burnishing craft are specified. On these grounds, I chose the drive form to fit the craft request, and specify the design project of the plastic and precise processing machine for surface; By contrasting the features of the rolling processing technology between the shaping processing technology, I confirm the overall machine structure of the plastic and precise processing machine for surface and draw stereoscopic assemble drawing, which base on the foundation of hydraulic shaping machine and combine professor Song's creative thought; I Carry on the design work of the hydraulic system of the plastic and precise processing machine for surface, and draw the system drawing of the hydraulic. I design the both pole piston hydraulic cylinder ,chosing the main component the hydraulic pump and valve etc in the same time; I Carry on the design work of the workbench transmission organ of the plastic and precise processing machine for surface, emphasising on the reformation equip of landscape orientation feed system to turn the number controls.
The plastic and precise processing machine for metal plane comprehensively uses mechanical technology、hydraulic technology、electric technology and computer technology. The primate movement in X direction is hydraulic to spread to move, which has some strongpoints ,such as,widely adjusting velocity range, the steady speed and the small impact at automatic transform direction time. The applying of light-grind line movement sensor and the computer can measure and save the date of velocity in the prime movement precisely so that the experiment method of seeking the relationship between rolling velocity and the processing quality of rolling is supplied in the course of rolling craft experiment; The feeding locomotion workbench in Y direction is realized by the number control way, Satisfying the accuracy request to landscape orientation feeding quantity in the roller burnishing process and coming true metered control to the feeding quantity, which the condition was created for seeking the relationship between the feeding quantity in rolling and the surface quality of rolling workpieces in the course of rolling craft experiment; In the course of rolling, the adjustment of precise feeding quantity in Z direction can be realized, which the control precision can reach 0.01mm. The quantity of rolling power can be measured by power-sensor and the feeding quantity and rolling power can be adjusted. The plastic and precise processing machine for surface, which has the higher automatization degree, can precisely record rolling velocity、rolling power and time, automatically producing the strength-time curved line、distance-time curved line etc.