Liang Qichao is a man of the modern time in China. He is one of the most active illuminative ideologists and political critics on the history stage of China at the end of 19th century and the beginning 20th century. His thought has a far-reaching influence to the modern time of China. So far Academia has made deep researches about Liang Qichao himself and many kinds of his ideas. They have made delectable achievements on these aspects, but it shows a pity for the unsystematic research on this aspect which still stays in some biographies and works fragmentarily. As the view implied in this thesis : Diplomatic ideas are a very important component of his ideas on which the systematic research will contribute a lot to the experiences and general understanding of his ideas. In the meanwhile, considering the special relationships between Lian Qichao’s whole life and Japan, the issue on the relationships between China and Japan is both an important task for his concern and thinking about unceasingly and a very important part of his diplomatic ideas in which it is of representative. Taking Liang Qichao’s diplomatic ideas as a cut-in point, this thesis will deal with deep researches about his diplomatic ideas at the end of Qing Dynasty, prove into the development and change about his diplomatic ideas, and the relationships between the ideas and the interior, expecting that we can grasp and research the experience and panorama of Liang Qichao’s ideas more fully and deeply, and supply the gap of the research of Liang Qichao.
The failure of the War of Jiawu and the disgrace from the Treaty of Maguan stimulated the Chinese strongly. In the course of the summing up the sorrow lesson of the failure of China, Lian Qichao put forward the diplomatic idea of learning from Japan and associating with Japan. He thought that the reason why Japan became strong from weakness is that they had changed their laws and learned from the west successfully. So Liang Qichao thought that China should imitate Japan to learn from the west to change laws. But we had to study him the heroic spirit, the intent of effort for ruling the region, selecting good for acting and the spirit of advocating power. Only in this way could China improve country diathesis, reached the aim of rebuilding country from up to down. For the foreign policy of “Associating with Japan to resist Russia” in Qing Dynasty, Liang Qichao pointed that the result of this foreign policy only was Russion must enter China, so resisting Russion was the means of saving the nation, so “Associating with Russia to resist Japan” was the way of protecting ourselves. So he had fancied to rely on the power of Japan to help Emperor Guang Xu restore and federate with Japan to resist the threat from Russia, thereby prevent China from being divided by the imperialists. Though Liang Qichao’s idea of “Associating with Japan to resist Russia” had its merit of making the advantage of the contradictions between the imperialists, it fell into the track of the traditional policy “Dealing with the foreign with the foreign”. The facts had proved that Liang Qichao’s wish was only a fantasy out of his own wishful thinking.
After the war between Japan and Russia, Britain, France, Russia and Japan had begun to adopt the harmonious and accordant policy with each other in the international activities. Being worried being lagged behind in the partitioning of China, Germany and the USA showed their Friendship frequently to the Qing Administration . While at that moment the Qing Government was imagining to hold back the Japan and Russia conspire of occupying the Northeast of China relying on the foreign power. So the voice, from the government to the citizen, of associating with America and Germany to resist Britain, Japan and Russia was reechoing through out the whole country.
In the voice of allying with America and Germany, from the point of view of the world, Liang Qichao made an analysis to the situation of China. He thought, at the circs of imperealism countries treat China as the poor looking for wealth, the weak country ought to keeping the balance of powers, but Allying Policy as fire fighting in this time we hold firewood. The ally of China-America and China-Germany which was the talk of conqrering a nation, Liang Qichao analysed ally foreign policy of China and pointed, China should adopt a different diplomatic policy as an objective weak country that the imperialists scrabbled for. The main feature of China situation was the oppression from the imperialists. Their attitude to China was as “A poor being anxious for wealth”. They can’t wait. The essential of the American and German association was to obtain more economic and political profits from China. If China also adopted the associated policy, this would be the same as “Saving fire with firewood in your arms”. As a weak country, if China wanted to survive in the crevice of the imperialists, we should adopt a neutral diplomatic policy to keep the world pattern balanceable. We had no other choice. So Liang Qichao tabled a proposal of “Reputation isolation” which was a diplomatic policy of not allying with any imperialistic country. This action not only reflected that Liang Qichao had a full and clear understanding to the imperialistic invasion to China but also indicated the advance in his diplomatic ideas.
After the outbreak of the first world war, Japan wanted to take advantage of the chance that the Europeans were busy with the war and their ignorance of the east to establish their dominating status in China. Japan announced the war to Germany. With that they invaded the peninsula of Shandong in China and snatched the invading advantages from Germany. After that, Japan threw out the Twenty-One Items which meant to the perdition of China and the condition to support Yuan Shikai as the emperor. At the key point at the stake of China, Liang Qichao stood up striking the table and queried the Qing, accused of the spirit of the Twenty-One Items was made China as a fatal position, alarmed the diplomatism authorities ought to think it over, didn’t become the nation’s malefactor and pointed the great hidden trouble, showed his patriotism in disclosing the imperialist crime speaking in justice.
During the World One Liang Qichao proposed firmly that China should join the coalition composed by Britain, France, Russia, Japan and America and join the war to Germany so as to make China a member of the winning countries and up grade the place in the world. After the war, the idea contributed a lot to the returning of the lost right of China the freedom from the fetter of the imperialists which established a new era for China. Liang Qichao thought that China should adopt the diplomatic strategy of Associating with Japan and far away from America during the period which meant to the limit not to lose America and connect with Japan, the real aim of associating with Japan was watching out for it.
After the first world war, at the peaceful meeting in Paris, aiming at the ignorance of Chinese advantages and the feeling of the Chinese people from the winning countries who transferred the benefits in Shandong from Germany to Japan, Liang Qichao moved about actively to run and battle cry protesting the crime of the Japan invading. He strengthened it rootless for Japan to inherit the benefits in Shandong from Germany. He disclosed the ugly conduct acted by Duan Qirui Administration who colluded with Japan and betrayed the sovereignty of China. He suggested not signing on the treaty in Paris Meeting and devoted himself to the negotiating involving the issue of Shandong with Japan which laid a beneficial situation for China make an active role in the international affairs and the settlement of the issue of Shandong in the meeting in Washington.
This dissertation studied about Liang Qichao’s diplomatic thought to Japan is originating, though carding Liang Qichao’s diplomatic thought to japan, the dissertation drew conclutions: Liang Qichao’s diplomatic thought to japan went though a course of developing and mature, which had the features of “Fluidity is variable”patriotism and serving interior. During the ten-year period from his mounting the political stage to the perdition of the Qing Dynasty, his diplomatic ideas underwent the transformation from “Associating with Japan to resist Russia” to “Reputation isolation”. Nevertheless, both ideas show us his patriotism considering more about the fate of the country. In spite of the ceaseless change according to the time and occasion of his diplomatic ideas, what most deeply impressed in our minds is his patriotic knot of more attention to the interior and country.