梁启超对日外交思想/

2019-04-29 06:50:47

China Japan Liang 梁启超 Qichao



梁启超是中国近代历史上的风云人物,是中国19世纪末20世纪初历史舞台上的最活跃的启蒙思想家和政论家,他的思想在中国近代史上产生了深远的影响。目前学术界对于梁启超及其思想的各个方面都有了深入的研究,取得了可喜的成果。然而,对于梁启超外交思想的研究,却只有零星的成果散见于各传记、著作之中,没有形成系统性成果。这不能不说是梁启超研究中的一个遗憾。本文认为:外交思想是梁启超思想的一个重要组成部分,对其进行系统的研究,对于把握梁启超思想经历及全貌有重要意义。同时,又考虑到梁启超一生与日本有着特殊关系,中日关系问题也是梁启超关注和不断思考的一个重要课题,是梁启超外交思想的最重要的组成部分,在梁启超外交思想中具有代表性的意义。因此,本文拟以外交思想为切入点,对梁启超的对日外交思想进行深入、系统的研究,探究其对日外交思想发展、变化的特点,以期更全面、更深入地把握、研究梁启超的思想经历及全貌,填补梁启超研究的这块空白。
甲午之败、马关之辱强烈地刺激着中国人的每一根神经。在总结中国失败的惨痛教训过程中,梁启超提出了师日、联日的外交思想。他认为,日本之所以由弱转强,就在于它成功地进行了变法,成功地学习了西方。所以,梁启超认为,中国要想摆脱落后的面貌,就必须师法日本,变法图强。借途日本学习西方。不仅如此,中国人还要学习日本民族的豪侠之气,学习其发愤为雄、择善而从和尚武的精神。只有这样,才能提高国民素质,从而达到自下而上的改造国家的目的。鉴于清政府采取“联俄拒日”的外交政策,梁启超一针见血地指出“联俄拒日”的结果只能是引狼入室,拒俄才是中国救亡之术,认为联日拒俄是中国图保自存之道。因此他幻想依靠日本的力量,帮助光绪帝复位,并结成中日联盟,共同抵御沙俄的威胁,从而使中国免遭帝国主义瓜分豆剖的危难。梁启超的这种思想有利用列强之间矛盾的可取因素,但就其性质来说,实际上也已经陷入了“以夷制夷”的覆辙,事实证明,梁启超的愿望是一厢情愿的幻想。
日俄战争后,英、法、俄、日四国在国际活动中,已经开始采取相互协调的一致策略。德、美两国害怕自己在瓜分中国的斗争中被摒弃在外,于是向清政府频示“友谊”,而这时的清政府正幻想借用外国力量对抗日本和沙俄霸占中国东北的图谋,所以,中国上自政府,下自国民,联美、德以抵抗英、俄、日、法的侵略的呼声甚嚣尘上。
在全国上下一片联美、联德声中,梁启超站在世界的角度,对中国的形势进行了分析,指出:弱国外交应以保持均势为原则,在帝国主义国家对待中国如“鄙夫求富”,急不可待的情况下,联合政策,无异于“抱薪救火”。社会上流行的中美、中德同盟“皆亡国之言”,他通过对中国以往联盟外交政策的分析,指出,像中国这样的弱国要想在帝国主义列强的夹缝中求生存,在外交上就必须对列强不偏不倚,严守中立,以保持国际格局的均势,此外别无他途。因此,梁启超为中国提出了“名誉孤立”的外交方针,就是对各帝国主义国家不结盟、不偏重。这一外交思想的提出,也反映了梁启超对帝国主义侵华本质有了更全面、更清晰认识,是梁启超外交思想的一次重要提升。
第一次世界大战爆发后,日本想利用欧洲列强忙于战场厮杀无暇东顾之机,建立在中国的支配地位。1914年8月,日本对德宣战,侵入中国领土山东半岛,夺取了德国在山东的侵略权益。此后,日本又抛出了旨在灭亡中国的“二十一条”作为支持袁世凯称帝的条件。在民族危难、国家危亡的关键时刻,梁启超拍案而起,向政府提出政治质问案,谴责日本提出“二十一条”的侵略实质是谋蹙中国于死地,警告外交当局慎思,切勿做祖国的罪人,指出了“二十一条”背后存在的巨大隐患,表现出爱国主义情怀。
第一次世界大战期间,梁启超曾经以在野名流的身份坚决主张中国加入英、法、俄、日、美协约国战团,参加对德战争,以便使中国成为战胜国的一员,提高国际地位,在战后国际会议上为中国争回失去的利权,摆脱列强的羁绊,为中华民国国际上开一新纪元。梁启超认为,这一时期,中国在外交上宜采取联日疏美的策略。即对美国在外交上以不失去为度,不要紧随,对日本则要采取“联络”的方针,联日的真正目的在于防日。
第一次世界大战结束后,在巴黎和会上,针对于战胜各国不顾中国的利益和中国人民的感情,把原先德国在山东的权益转让给日本,梁启超又积极活动,为抗议日本帝国主义的侵略而奔走呐喊。他强调日本继承德国在山东的权益是没有根据的, 指出了段祺瑞政府勾结日本,出卖主权的行径是“加绳自缚”,建议在巴黎和会上拒签和约,反对与日本直接交涉山东问题,为中国在外交上占据主动地位创造了条件,也为华盛顿会议解决山东问题创造了有利的态势。
对梁启超对日外交思想进行系统的研究,本文尚属初创,通过对梁启超对日外交思想进行耙梳,得出如下结论:梁启超的对日外交思想经历了一个不断发展、不断成熟的过程,具有“流质善变”、爱国主义和服务于内政等显著特点。从梁启超登上政治舞台,到其晚年的几十年的时间里,其外交思想就经历了清代末期师日、联日、到“中立”的转变,和民国以后的反日、联日、反日的不断反复。然而,无论梁启超的外交思想如何变化,外交服务于内政、服务于国家这一点是没有发生变化的,在其中表现出梁启超关心国家命运的拳拳爱国之心和那挥之不去的关注内政、关注国家的爱国主义情结。
















Liang Qichao is a man of the modern time in China. He is one of the most active illuminative ideologists and political critics on the history stage of China at the end of 19th century and the beginning 20th century. His thought has a far-reaching influence to the modern time of China. So far Academia has made deep researches about Liang Qichao himself and many kinds of his ideas. They have made delectable achievements on these aspects, but it shows a pity for the unsystematic research on this aspect which still stays in some biographies and works fragmentarily. As the view implied in this thesis : Diplomatic ideas are a very important component of his ideas on which the systematic research will contribute a lot to the experiences and general understanding of his ideas. In the meanwhile, considering the special relationships between Lian Qichao’s whole life and Japan, the issue on the relationships between China and Japan is both an important task for his concern and thinking about unceasingly and a very important part of his diplomatic ideas in which it is of representative. Taking Liang Qichao’s diplomatic ideas as a cut-in point, this thesis will deal with deep researches about his diplomatic ideas at the end of Qing Dynasty, prove into the development and change about his diplomatic ideas, and the relationships between the ideas and the interior, expecting that we can grasp and research the experience and panorama of Liang Qichao’s ideas more fully and deeply, and supply the gap of the research of Liang Qichao.
The failure of the War of Jiawu and the disgrace from the Treaty of Maguan stimulated the Chinese strongly. In the course of the summing up the sorrow lesson of the failure of China, Lian Qichao put forward the diplomatic idea of learning from Japan and associating with Japan. He thought that the reason why Japan became strong from weakness is that they had changed their laws and learned from the west successfully. So Liang Qichao thought that China should imitate Japan to learn from the west to change laws. But we had to study him the heroic spirit, the intent of effort for ruling the region, selecting good for acting and the spirit of advocating power. Only in this way could China improve country diathesis, reached the aim of rebuilding country from up to down. For the foreign policy of “Associating with Japan to resist Russia” in Qing Dynasty, Liang Qichao pointed that the result of this foreign policy only was Russion must enter China, so resisting Russion was the means of saving the nation, so “Associating with Russia to resist Japan” was the way of protecting ourselves. So he had fancied to rely on the power of Japan to help Emperor Guang Xu restore and federate with Japan to resist the threat from Russia, thereby prevent China from being divided by the imperialists. Though Liang Qichao’s idea of “Associating with Japan to resist Russia” had its merit of making the advantage of the contradictions between the imperialists, it fell into the track of the traditional policy “Dealing with the foreign with the foreign”. The facts had proved that Liang Qichao’s wish was only a fantasy out of his own wishful thinking.
After the war between Japan and Russia, Britain, France, Russia and Japan had begun to adopt the harmonious and accordant policy with each other in the international activities. Being worried being lagged behind in the partitioning of China, Germany and the USA showed their Friendship frequently to the Qing Administration . While at that moment the Qing Government was imagining to hold back the Japan and Russia conspire of occupying the Northeast of China relying on the foreign power. So the voice, from the government to the citizen, of associating with America and Germany to resist Britain, Japan and Russia was reechoing through out the whole country.
In the voice of allying with America and Germany, from the point of view of the world, Liang Qichao made an analysis to the situation of China. He thought, at the circs of imperealism countries treat China as the poor looking for wealth, the weak country ought to keeping the balance of powers, but Allying Policy as fire fighting in this time we hold firewood. The ally of China-America and China-Germany which was the talk of conqrering a nation, Liang Qichao analysed ally foreign policy of China and pointed, China should adopt a different diplomatic policy as an objective weak country that the imperialists scrabbled for. The main feature of China situation was the oppression from the imperialists. Their attitude to China was as “A poor being anxious for wealth”. They can’t wait. The essential of the American and German association was to obtain more economic and political profits from China. If China also adopted the associated policy, this would be the same as “Saving fire with firewood in your arms”. As a weak country, if China wanted to survive in the crevice of the imperialists, we should adopt a neutral diplomatic policy to keep the world pattern balanceable. We had no other choice. So Liang Qichao tabled a proposal of “Reputation isolation” which was a diplomatic policy of not allying with any imperialistic country. This action not only reflected that Liang Qichao had a full and clear understanding to the imperialistic invasion to China but also indicated the advance in his diplomatic ideas.
After the outbreak of the first world war, Japan wanted to take advantage of the chance that the Europeans were busy with the war and their ignorance of the east to establish their dominating status in China. Japan announced the war to Germany. With that they invaded the peninsula of Shandong in China and snatched the invading advantages from Germany. After that, Japan threw out the Twenty-One Items which meant to the perdition of China and the condition to support Yuan Shikai as the emperor. At the key point at the stake of China, Liang Qichao stood up striking the table and queried the Qing, accused of the spirit of the Twenty-One Items was made China as a fatal position, alarmed the diplomatism authorities ought to think it over, didn’t become the nation’s malefactor and pointed the great hidden trouble, showed his patriotism in disclosing the imperialist crime speaking in justice.
During the World One Liang Qichao proposed firmly that China should join the coalition composed by Britain, France, Russia, Japan and America and join the war to Germany so as to make China a member of the winning countries and up grade the place in the world. After the war, the idea contributed a lot to the returning of the lost right of China the freedom from the fetter of the imperialists which established a new era for China. Liang Qichao thought that China should adopt the diplomatic strategy of Associating with Japan and far away from America during the period which meant to the limit not to lose America and connect with Japan, the real aim of associating with Japan was watching out for it.
After the first world war, at the peaceful meeting in Paris, aiming at the ignorance of Chinese advantages and the feeling of the Chinese people from the winning countries who transferred the benefits in Shandong from Germany to Japan, Liang Qichao moved about actively to run and battle cry protesting the crime of the Japan invading. He strengthened it rootless for Japan to inherit the benefits in Shandong from Germany. He disclosed the ugly conduct acted by Duan Qirui Administration who colluded with Japan and betrayed the sovereignty of China. He suggested not signing on the treaty in Paris Meeting and devoted himself to the negotiating involving the issue of Shandong with Japan which laid a beneficial situation for China make an active role in the international affairs and the settlement of the issue of Shandong in the meeting in Washington.
This dissertation studied about Liang Qichao’s diplomatic thought to Japan is originating, though carding Liang Qichao’s diplomatic thought to japan, the dissertation drew conclutions: Liang Qichao’s diplomatic thought to japan went though a course of developing and mature, which had the features of “Fluidity is variable”patriotism and serving interior. During the ten-year period from his mounting the political stage to the perdition of the Qing Dynasty, his diplomatic ideas underwent the transformation from “Associating with Japan to resist Russia” to “Reputation isolation”. Nevertheless, both ideas show us his patriotism considering more about the fate of the country. In spite of the ceaseless change according to the time and occasion of his diplomatic ideas, what most deeply impressed in our minds is his patriotic knot of more attention to the interior and country.