党内民主的基本内涵和有效运行/

2019-04-28 03:00:42

inner party 民主 democracy 党内



民主是维护政治合法性的重要手段。党内民主是民主的一般性原则在党的组织和党内生活中的反映,是一个政治组织内部的民主。这种民主模式在顺应民主政治历史趋势的同时,又有别于西方多党制民主,其基本宗旨在于坚持、保证和加强党的领导。
本文在对西方国家民主概念进行批判性分析的基础上,结合党内民主的特殊性质和我国的具体国情,运用政治学基本原理对党内民主的内涵和实现途径进行了分析和探讨。
首先,本文第一部分对党内民主的基本内涵进行了分析和界定。民主是由多数人进行决断的机制,是与自由和平等相联系的范畴。党内民主是指在党内生活中,根据党章和党的其他有关规定,党员按照有关的民主程序和形式对党的事务的参与、决定与管理。党内民主是国家政治生活民主化的关键,对于维护党的团结统一和国家政治权威有重要意义。党内民主须坚持以下六项主要原则:平等、集体领导与个人分工负责相结合、每个党员在党内都有批评的权利、党内事务应当由多数来作决定、党的各级领导机构都应由选举产生、民主监督。
其次,本文第二部分对马克思主义党内民主理论的历史发展进行了梳理和概括。在马克思和恩格斯的建党学说中包含着非常明确的党内民主思想,并认为这是工人阶级政党的优势。列宁在领导俄国革命的过程中,对党内民主问题作过很多精辟论述,在继承马克思、恩格斯党内民主理论的基础上有了进一步的丰富和深化。中国共产党人对党内民主理论进行了进一步的探索,毛泽东、刘少奇、邓小平等党的领导人在中国革命和建设的不同历史时期对党内民主理论进行了探索和发展,并最终认识到:发展党内民主必须同我国的国情相结合。
最后,本文第三部分对党内民主的诸实践问题进行了分析,认为长期的计划经济体制下,执政党组织的大包大揽消弭了党员个人的主体资格和责任能力,真正意义上的党内民主就虚化了,党虽然制定了很多党内民主制度,但在具体实施层面还存在不少问题。民主集中制对党内民主的意义在于:一,民主集中制可防范寡头统治倾向。二,民主集中制是政治合法化机制,从程序正当性上保障党内民主制度得以有效运转。由此得出结论:民主集中制的程序正义对实现党内民主具有重要意义,只有把民主集中制作为一种政治合法化机制才能真正发展党内民主进而推动社会民主。



As a device, democracy is instrumental in maintaining political validity. As democracy within the party exists in a political organization, its general principle is reflected in the party’s organization and life. Such democratic pattern gets acclimatized to the historical trend politically and democratically. At the same time, it is distinct from multi-party democracy in the west, with the fundamental aim of safeguarding,intensifying and adhering to the party’s leadership.
Based on critical analysis of the concept of democracy in western countries, this paper makes an analysis and discussion of the connotation and approach to realizing inner-party democracy by applying the fundamentals of politics and combining special characteristics of our inner-party democracy and specific realities of our country.
First, Part I in this paper examines and defines the basic connotation of democracy within the party. As a category related to freedom and equality, democracy is an institution by which the majority make a decision. Inner-party democracy indicates that, depending on party constitution and other provisions related, a party member has a voice in participation, resolution and management in party affairs according to relating democratic procedure and form. As the key to democratization in national political life, democracy within the party has great significance for maintaining party’s solidarity and unity and national political authority, which has to stick to the following six main principles: integration of equality, collective leadership and division of labor with individual responsibility, every member inside the party having the right to criticism, the majority making a decision about party affairs, and all levels of party leading institution coming into being by election and democracy supervision.
Second, Part II in this paper gives an overview of the historical development of Marxist inner-party democracy theory. The theory of establishing-party by Marx and Engels includes very explicit inner-party democratic ideology, and which is regarded as the advantages of working class party. In the process of leading the revolution in Russia, Lenin made many brilliant expositions about the issue of inner-party democracy and enriched it on the basis of inheriting the theory of inner-party democracy by Marx and Engels, for which Chinese communists also carried out a further quest, party leaders such as Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping etc, made their respective contributions to the development of the theory during different stages of Chinese revolution and construction, and finally there emerged a recognition that it is a necessary connection between developing inner-party democracy and fundamental realities of China.
Lastly, Part III in this paper makes an analysis of putting inner-party democracy into practice and considers that, during the long period of planned economy, for individual party member, the governing party’s taking on everything has put an end to their responsibility and qualification as a principal part, as a result, inner-party democracy in the true sense has been weakened. Although a lot of systems have been established for inner-party democracy, there still exist many problems in actual practice. For inner-party democracy, democratic centralism finds its fulfillment in: a. taking precautions against oligarchy; b. conscientiously safeguarding legitimate rights of every party member. Guaranteeing inner-party democracy system from the procedural justice, thus we can reach the very conclusion that the procedural justice of democratic centralism bears great significance in bringing about inner-party democracy. Only by deeming democratic centralism as a kind of mechanism legitimatized politically can we really develop inner-party democracy and further boost social democracy.