After World War II, the global economy gets on the right track progressively, and the whole world economy develops quickly. The international trade standardizes progressively. The international trade is coordinated and restrained by GATT and WTO in the whole world, so it develops orderly. However, being different economic subjects, because of the national interest, conflicts are unavoidable in the course of economic development and trade contacts. Especially between the U.S. which is the strongest country economically and Japan that created “ Japan miracle” and whose economic force strengthens rapidly, the trade contacts are frequent and the volume of the trade is enormous. The interest disputes are apt to present and the trade frictions take place instantly between the two countries. The analysis on this question not only can help us know about the development of the whole international economy, but also has an important enlightenment to smoothly develop the foreign trade of our country at the same time.
What this text discussed mainly is the characters, reasons and settlements of Japan-U.S.A. economic and trade frictions. Combined with the characteristics of Sino-America trading ties and similar conditions of China-Japan through the analysis, I propose some settlement to solve Sino-America economic and trade frictions. I wish it could be useful for the coordinated development of Sino-U.S. trade ties.
The full thesis includes five parts altogether.
The first part of the thesis introduces the background and behave of the Japan-U.S., including the development of economic connection after World War Ⅱ, the changes of economic structure and the main trade frictions.
The second part analyses the reasons of Japan-U.S. trade friction. After the trade frictions happened, the two countries criticized each other. The U.S.A. pointed out the Japanese market was close, repelled the outside goods, and had defects in the price mechanism. Japan proposed the Americans expended too heavily and were excessive to consume. Japan thought America should pay attention to the cultivation of talents, change the unreasonable investment structure, and expand export. The original reason of the bilateral trade frictions is to protect both sides' vested interest. The apparent cause is the imbalance of payments, but the deep-seated causes are various: the change of economic power between the two countries, the difference of economic developing patterns, trade policies and economic situations of Japan and the difference of productivity and cost between two countries.
The third part introduces the measures with which the two countries settle the trade frictions. The U.S.A. is often in the “passive status” in the trade frictions. Japan often attacks the American market first, squeezes the American products with the good and inexpensive Japanese products, and seizes U.S.A.'s market share. At the same time Japan does not open the domestic market, which makes both sides compete under the unequal condition. The U.S.A. takes measures just in order to protect the market, and has made certain effect. The measures that the U.S.A. always uses are: negotiate with Japan and settle the problems by the strength of government and diploma; appeal to GATT, WTO, and draw support from international strength; formulate the trade barrier policy to limit Japan; implement industrial policy to strike back Japan. After the trade frictions happened, in the face of the criticism and demand of U.S.A., Japan always seems to give in, compromise, and sign a series of agreements with the U.S.A., but this is exactly the wise behave of Japan. Japan is coping with the shifting events by sticking to a fundamental principle. In the face of the U.S.A. with strong comprehensive force, the front conflicts the U.S. is harmful to Japan, but doing in this way will not only protect the vested interest of Japan but also prevent the conflicts sharpening. The measures Japan uses are: bargain in the negotiation to maximize its interest; abide by the agreement on the surface and look for the chance to continue exporting to the U.S.A. in the dark; give in and restrict export voluntarily in order to relax the relation between the two countries; ignore the agreements sometimes because the awards of GATT and WTO haven’t the legal effect.
The fourth part describes the China-U.S. trade connection. Since 1972 China and U.S. got back the normal economic connection, and the connection improved rapidly. Because of the benefit, trade frictions are inevitable. The frictions mostly are: Chinese dumping, American export restriction, knowledge property right skein and imbalance of payments.
According to the experiences that Japan and America settle the trade friction, combing with the status quo of China, the fifth part brings out some measures that settle China-U.S. trade problems. Because the market economy of our country has not been perfect yet, economy does not develop well enough, and the time of accession to the WTO is not very long, China has not totally integrated with the whole international economy yet. The thoughts of domestic enterprises have not been totally changed over yet, it is not familiar enough with international practices, and production and management aren’t normal enough. That China is often in the inferior position in the international trade frictions will have a negative effect on economy, so we should refer to the experience of abroad dealing with economic and trade frictions, develop the external trade of our country better, and promote the domestic economic growth. Japan and U.S.A. are both the economically strongest country in the world, so how to deal with the trade frictions between them is typical. Nowadays there are certain similarities between the Chinese market and Japanese market. The markets are close, and the currency often faces the pressure of appreciation. We should summarize the experiences and lessons from Japan-American trade, improve Sino-America trade relations, learn from other's strong points to offset one's weaknesses, develop the national economy quickly, and join the international economy. We can draw the following experiences from the analysis of Japanese succeeding in capturing the American market: initiatively put up economic actions according to international tradition; positively change disadvantage status; be firm in maintenance justice right; quicken the steps of research, developing and innovation in Chinese enterprises; accelerate the upgrading of export industrial structure; control the entry of foreign investment; keep firm stand on RMB exchange rate.
That Sino-America trade develops rapidly lies in the complementary of the economic resources in the two countries, which makes the two countries' economical tie continuously develop. Invited by American President Bush, Premier Wen Jiabao visited U.S.A. in December of 2003. Premier Wen proposed five principles to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of China-US trade and economic cooperation: Deepen cooperation, increase mutual benefit and achieve a win-win result; Development should be put at the first priority. The problem of trade deficit should be resolved through expanded trade and economic cooperation. China hopes that the United States remove its restrictions on exports to China; Build and improve trade and economic coordinating mechanisms; Disputes in bilateral trade and economic relations should be settled through equal consultations instead of imposing restrictions or sanctions at every turn; Do not politicize economic and trade issues. As long as the two countries proceed from the situation as a whole under the guidance of the five principles, work hard in getting rid of the influence of non-economic factors, and expand the cooperation and understanding, China-U.S. trade connection will get the development in the long time.