日美经贸摩擦及对中国的启示/

2019-04-26 16:04:17

The economic trade Japan frictions



二战以后,全球经济逐步走上正轨,整个世界经济得到快速发展。国际贸易也逐步走向规范化,并先后建立了关贸总协定和世界贸易组织在世界范围内进行协调和约束,整个世界的贸易得到协调有序的发展。但是,由于作为不同的经济主体,从本国的利益出发,双方在经济发展和贸易往来过程中不可避免会出现矛盾和问题。特别是作为世界经济头号大国的美国和创造了“东洋奇迹”、经济实力迅猛增强的日本,贸易来往频繁,贸易额巨大,更容易出现利益纷争,两国间贸易摩擦屡屡发生。对这一问题的分析不仅有利于我们了解整个世界经济的发展,同时对于我国对外贸易的顺利展开也有重要的启示。
本文主要讨论的是日美经贸摩擦的特点、原因及其解决方式,通过这些分析结合中美经贸关系的特点以及中日两国的相似之处,根据日美的对策提出了一些解决中美经贸摩擦的措施,希望可以对中美经贸关系的协调发展有所帮助。
全文共分五个部分。
本文的第一部分主要是介绍日美经贸摩擦发生的经济背景及表现,包括二战以后两国经贸关系的发展,两国经济结构的变化以及两国主要的经贸摩擦。
文章的第二部分主要分析了日美经贸摩擦产生的原因。经贸摩擦产生后,两国便相互指责。美国指出日本市场封闭,排斥外来商品,价格机制等方面存在缺陷,而日本也提出美国开销太大,消费过分,应注意对人才的培养,改变不合理的投资结构,扩大出口。两国产生摩擦的根源可以说是保护双方各自的既得利益。两国经贸摩擦的表面原因是两国贸易收支的失衡,实质性原因是多方面的:首先是两国经济实力对比的变化;其次是两国经济发展模式的差异;再次日本的贸易政策和经济形势加剧了两国的经贸摩擦;最后是两国劳动生产率和劳动成本的差异。
论文的第三部分介绍了两国应对摩擦所采取的措施。美国在贸易摩擦中往往处于“被动”地位,常常是日本产品先大举进攻美国市场,用物美价廉的日本产品排挤美国产品,抢占美国市场份额,同时又不开放本国市场,使双方在一种不平等的条件下展开竞争。美国为了保护市场,防止对日贸易逆差的升高,才采取措施,并取得了一定的成效。美国的对策是:与日本进行谈判,用外交的手段、政府的力量加以解决;向GATT、WTO等国际组织起诉,应用国际的力量来解决;实施贸易壁垒、制定产业政策来反击日本。贸易摩擦产生后,面对美国的指责和要求,日本似乎总是让步和妥协,与美国签订一系列协议,但这正是日本的明智之举,日本在以不变应万变。面对综合实力强大的美国,正面冲突对自己不会有好处,而这样做既保护了日本的既得利益,又防止摩擦激化,对日本来讲是有百利而无一害的。在签订了协议后,日本依然超越协议,我行我素。日本的对策是:在谈判中讨价还价,最大限度争取自己的利益;从其他途径突破两国协议,继续自己的经贸活动;主动限制出口;不遵守与美国的协议,我行我素。
第四部分介绍了中美经贸关系。中美自从1972年建交以来恢复了正常的经贸关系并且得到了迅速的发展,但是出于利益的角度,双方的经贸摩擦不可避免,双方的冲突主要体现在中国出口倾销问题、美国的出口管制问题、两国知识产权纠纷问题和中美贸易不平衡问题上。
第五部分根据日美两国解决经贸摩擦的经验,结合本国的实际提出了一些解决中美经贸冲突的措施。由于我国的市场经济还未完善,经济还不够发达,并且加入世贸组织的时间还不很长,还未完全与整个世界经济接轨,国内企业的思想还没有完全转变过来,对国际惯例也不够熟悉,生产经营不够规范,在国际贸易摩擦中往往处于劣势,会对经济产生不良的影响,因此我们应充分地借鉴国外处理经贸摩擦的经验,更好地发展我国的对外贸易,促进国内经济增长。日本和美国都是世界上经济实力最强的国家,它们之间处理贸易问题的方式是具有典型意义的。目前,我国市场和日本市场有一定的相似之处,就是对外相对封闭,市场开放程度较低,货币经常面临升值压力,我们要从日美贸易中总结出经验教训,改善中美贸易关系,并取长补短,快速发展经济,融入世界经济浪潮。从日本成功占领美国市场的分析中我们可以得出以下的经验:积极运用国际惯例和贸易协定来进行经济活动,不给对方以可乘之机;主动出击,改变自己的不利地位,坚决维护自己的正当权益;加快我国企业的研发和创新步伐;促进出口产业结构升级;控制外资的过度流入;在人民币汇率上保持坚定的立场。
中美贸易之所以能够迅速发展,根本原因在于两国经济资源具有极大的互补性,这使得两国经济可以持续快速的发展。2003年12月温家宝总理应美国总统布什的邀请访问美国,在访美期间提出了处理中美经贸关系的五项原则:第一、互利共赢。从大处着眼,既要考虑自己利益,又要考虑对方利益。第二、把发展放在首位。通过扩大经贸合作来化解分歧。第三、发挥双边经贸协调机制作用。及时沟通和磋商,避免矛盾激化。第四、平等协商。求大同存小异,不动辄设限和制裁。第五、不把经贸问题政治化。如果双方能在这五项原则的指引下,从两国发展的大局出发,努力排除非经济因素的影响,扩大合作与共识,减少不利因素的影响,中美经贸关系必将得到长远协调的发展。



After World War II, the global economy gets on the right track progressively, and the whole world economy develops quickly. The international trade standardizes progressively. The international trade is coordinated and restrained by GATT and WTO in the whole world, so it develops orderly. However, being different economic subjects, because of the national interest, conflicts are unavoidable in the course of economic development and trade contacts. Especially between the U.S. which is the strongest country economically and Japan that created “ Japan miracle” and whose economic force strengthens rapidly, the trade contacts are frequent and the volume of the trade is enormous. The interest disputes are apt to present and the trade frictions take place instantly between the two countries. The analysis on this question not only can help us know about the development of the whole international economy, but also has an important enlightenment to smoothly develop the foreign trade of our country at the same time.
What this text discussed mainly is the characters, reasons and settlements of Japan-U.S.A. economic and trade frictions. Combined with the characteristics of Sino-America trading ties and similar conditions of China-Japan through the analysis, I propose some settlement to solve Sino-America economic and trade frictions. I wish it could be useful for the coordinated development of Sino-U.S. trade ties.
The full thesis includes five parts altogether.
The first part of the thesis introduces the background and behave of the Japan-U.S., including the development of economic connection after World War Ⅱ, the changes of economic structure and the main trade frictions.
The second part analyses the reasons of Japan-U.S. trade friction. After the trade frictions happened, the two countries criticized each other. The U.S.A. pointed out the Japanese market was close, repelled the outside goods, and had defects in the price mechanism. Japan proposed the Americans expended too heavily and were excessive to consume. Japan thought America should pay attention to the cultivation of talents, change the unreasonable investment structure, and expand export. The original reason of the bilateral trade frictions is to protect both sides' vested interest. The apparent cause is the imbalance of payments, but the deep-seated causes are various: the change of economic power between the two countries, the difference of economic developing patterns, trade policies and economic situations of Japan and the difference of productivity and cost between two countries.
The third part introduces the measures with which the two countries settle the trade frictions. The U.S.A. is often in the “passive status” in the trade frictions. Japan often attacks the American market first, squeezes the American products with the good and inexpensive Japanese products, and seizes U.S.A.'s market share. At the same time Japan does not open the domestic market, which makes both sides compete under the unequal condition. The U.S.A. takes measures just in order to protect the market, and has made certain effect. The measures that the U.S.A. always uses are: negotiate with Japan and settle the problems by the strength of government and diploma; appeal to GATT, WTO, and draw support from international strength; formulate the trade barrier policy to limit Japan; implement industrial policy to strike back Japan. After the trade frictions happened, in the face of the criticism and demand of U.S.A., Japan always seems to give in, compromise, and sign a series of agreements with the U.S.A., but this is exactly the wise behave of Japan. Japan is coping with the shifting events by sticking to a fundamental principle. In the face of the U.S.A. with strong comprehensive force, the front conflicts the U.S. is harmful to Japan, but doing in this way will not only protect the vested interest of Japan but also prevent the conflicts sharpening. The measures Japan uses are: bargain in the negotiation to maximize its interest; abide by the agreement on the surface and look for the chance to continue exporting to the U.S.A. in the dark; give in and restrict export voluntarily in order to relax the relation between the two countries; ignore the agreements sometimes because the awards of GATT and WTO haven’t the legal effect.
The fourth part describes the China-U.S. trade connection. Since 1972 China and U.S. got back the normal economic connection, and the connection improved rapidly. Because of the benefit, trade frictions are inevitable. The frictions mostly are: Chinese dumping, American export restriction, knowledge property right skein and imbalance of payments.
According to the experiences that Japan and America settle the trade friction, combing with the status quo of China, the fifth part brings out some measures that settle China-U.S. trade problems. Because the market economy of our country has not been perfect yet, economy does not develop well enough, and the time of accession to the WTO is not very long, China has not totally integrated with the whole international economy yet. The thoughts of domestic enterprises have not been totally changed over yet, it is not familiar enough with international practices, and production and management aren’t normal enough. That China is often in the inferior position in the international trade frictions will have a negative effect on economy, so we should refer to the experience of abroad dealing with economic and trade frictions, develop the external trade of our country better, and promote the domestic economic growth. Japan and U.S.A. are both the economically strongest country in the world, so how to deal with the trade frictions between them is typical. Nowadays there are certain similarities between the Chinese market and Japanese market. The markets are close, and the currency often faces the pressure of appreciation. We should summarize the experiences and lessons from Japan-American trade, improve Sino-America trade relations, learn from other's strong points to offset one's weaknesses, develop the national economy quickly, and join the international economy. We can draw the following experiences from the analysis of Japanese succeeding in capturing the American market: initiatively put up economic actions according to international tradition; positively change disadvantage status; be firm in maintenance justice right; quicken the steps of research, developing and innovation in Chinese enterprises; accelerate the upgrading of export industrial structure; control the entry of foreign investment; keep firm stand on RMB exchange rate.
That Sino-America trade develops rapidly lies in the complementary of the economic resources in the two countries, which makes the two countries' economical tie continuously develop. Invited by American President Bush, Premier Wen Jiabao visited U.S.A. in December of 2003. Premier Wen proposed five principles to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of China-US trade and economic cooperation: Deepen cooperation, increase mutual benefit and achieve a win-win result; Development should be put at the first priority. The problem of trade deficit should be resolved through expanded trade and economic cooperation. China hopes that the United States remove its restrictions on exports to China; Build and improve trade and economic coordinating mechanisms; Disputes in bilateral trade and economic relations should be settled through equal consultations instead of imposing restrictions or sanctions at every turn; Do not politicize economic and trade issues. As long as the two countries proceed from the situation as a whole under the guidance of the five principles, work hard in getting rid of the influence of non-economic factors, and expand the cooperation and understanding, China-U.S. trade connection will get the development in the long time.