《旧金山对日和约》的签定及其影响/

2019-04-21 11:35:36

policy Japan America treaty 和约



《旧金山对日和约》是二战以后的重要条约,它对亚太地区,尤其是对中、苏、日、美等国产生了重要影响。本文通过论述其签定的背景、原因、内容及影响,从而为历史观问题、美日同盟问题、北方四岛和钓鱼岛问题以及战后日本国际地位的提高等问题提供了一定的解释。
全文共分四部分,摘要如下:
第一部分“美国对日政策的转变”。首先论述了二战及战后初期美国的对日政策。在太平洋战争初期,美国的对日政策就是要打败日本。从1944年开始直至战后初期,美国的对日政策则是要遏制日本的发展,使其不再成为美国的竞争对手。在这一政策的指导下,战后美国对日本进行了民主化和非军事化改革。
然而,随着国际形势的变化,美国的对日政策出现重大调整。美苏两国关系恶化,后来逐步升级为冷战。冷战使美国逐渐“青睐”日本,力图用日本来牵制苏联,使其成为遏制苏联的桥头堡。
美国调整对日政策的另一个重要原因是其对华政策的失败。美国本打算扶植中国的国民党政府,使其成为美国在亚洲的代言人。但在战场上,国民党军队节节败退,迫不得已,美国只好调整其对华政策,最终开始扶植日本。
第二部分“《旧金山对日和约》签定的具体原因”。论述了签定《旧金山对日和约》的三条具体原因。一是院部总三方如何协调。二是美国和其他国家如何相互协调。这些国家主要包括菲律宾、澳大利亚、新西兰、英国及一些非洲和拉丁美洲国家。而争取英国在这一问题上的支持是美国外交工作的重点。三是日本政府的极力争取。为了签定有利于日本的对日和约,日本政府从各个方面协助美国,最终取得了美国的“欢心”,签定了片面媾和条约。
第三部分“《旧金山对日和约》的主要内容”。主要论述了《旧金山对日和约》和《美日安全条约》的主要内容,从而为下文分析其对亚太地区的影响提供依据。而且这部分还论述了《旧金山对日和约》和《美日安全条约》的关系,两者是密不可分的,《美日安全条约》可以看作是《旧金山对日和约》的一个不可缺少的附件。
第四部分“《旧金山对日和约》的影响”。这是本文的重点部分。主要论述了《旧金山对日和约》对中、苏、美、日等国的影响,主要包括五个方面:一是它严重地损害了中国的利益。和会将中国排斥在外,而且条约抹杀了从1931年到1941年十年间中国军民抗击日寇的历史功绩。在台湾问题上,美日搞模糊政策,损害了中国的主权。二是为日本帝国主义松绑,是形成错误历史观的主要原因之一。条约对战犯处理的极其宽大,并使日本免于战争赔偿,而且对战争的性质避而不谈,从而促进了日本国内错误历史观的形成。三是结成美日同盟,威胁亚洲的安全。美日同盟是一个旨在反苏反共的军事同盟,它使亚洲的和平局面受到严重的威胁。四是北方四岛和钓鱼岛问题。条约涉及到北方四岛和钓鱼岛问题。它们产生的一个根源就是美日搞片面媾和,从而使问题更加复杂化。五是日本国际地位的提高。和约使日本重返国际政治舞台,而且由于美国的核保护伞,使日本把更多的资金用于经济建设,在经济上走了一条捷径。



“Treaty of peace with Japan” was an important treaty after the World WarⅡ, and it had an important influence to the Asian-Pacific area, especially to China, Russia, Japan, America, ect. By describing its background, reasons, content and influence, this article offered certain explanations for such questions as conception of history, Alliance of America and Japan, Fourth Northern Islands, Diaoyu Island and the improvement of the Japanese international status after the war, etc.
The article has four parts, and its abstract is as follows:
The first part is “the transition of America policy on Japan”. At first it described America policy on Japan during the World WarⅡand after war. In the initial stage of the Pacific War, American aim was to defeat Japan. From 1944 to the initial stage after War, American policy was to contain the development of Japan, and made it not become the rival of America again. Under the guidance of this policy, America carried out the reform of democratization and demilitary to Japan after the war.
However, because the changes of the international situation, America began to adjust its policy on Japan. The relation between America and Russia worsened, it lead to the Cold War. The Cold War made America “favor” Japan gradually, and it wanted to contain Russia by Japan.
Another important reason was the failure of its policy on China. At first, America wanted to foster the Kuomintang government of China, and made it become American spokesman in Asia. But in the battle field, the Kuomintang army was defeated, so America had no choice but to adjust its policy on China and begin to foster Japan finally.
The second part is“the concrete reasons of‘Treaty Of Peace With Japan’”.It has three concrete reasons. Firstly, how State Department, the US department of defense, and Headquarters of the confederates are in harmony. Secondly, how America and other countries are in harmony each other. These countries included Philippine, Australia, New Zealand, Britain and some African and Latin American countries. Getting support of Britain was the most important work for America Government. Thirdly, the strive of Japanese government. To sign the treaty which is good to Japan,Japan government helped American from all sides,and at last it got America“favor” and signed the one-sided treaty of making peace.
The third part is“the main contents of ‘treaty of peace With Japan’”. It described the main contents of “treaty of peace with Japan” and “safe treaty of America and Japan”. Thus it offered basis on which analyse their impacts on the Asia-Pacific area. Moreover, this part also described the relation of “Treaty Of Peace With Japan” and “safe treaty of America and Japan”. They were dense and integral. And “safe treaty of America and Japan” can be regarded as an indispensable part of “Treaty Of Peace With Japan”.
The fourth part is “the influence of ‘Treaty of peace with Japan’”. This part is the most important one in the article. It described its influence to China, Russia, America, Japan, etc. It included five respects: Firstly, it damaged the benefit of China seriously. This conference repelled China outside, and the treaty obliterated the historical contribution that the Chinese army and people resisted Japanese invaders during the decade from 1931 to 1941.On the Taiwan issue, America and Japan did the fuzzy policy, and it damaged the sovereignty of China. Secondly, forming the wrong conception of history. The treaty was extremely spacious to the war criminals, and made Japan avoid the war indemnities, and avoided mentioning the nature to the war. Therefore, it promoted the forming of the wrong conception of history in Japan. Thirdly, the Alliance of America and Japan threatened the security of Asia. It was a military alliance of anti-Russia and anti-communism, so it threatened the peaceful situation of Asia. Fourthly, Four Northern Islands and Diaoyu Island question. An origin that they produced was that America and Japan made peace one-sided, so questions became more complicated. Fifthly, the improvement of Japanese international status. It made Japan return to the international political platform. Because of the nuclear ambrella of America, Japan could use more funds for economic construction, and take a shortcut economically.