日本《帝国国防方针》研究/

2019-04-20 00:25:10

The policy China national Japan



日本《帝国国防方针》集中体现了日本在整个近代对外侵略扩张的进攻型世界战略,是日本后来参与、发动世界性战争的根本指导性方针。它制定于日俄战后的1907年,历经1918年、1923年和1936年三次修改。日本《帝国国防方针》的变化反映了日本政府对外霸权战略的发展轨迹。
本文力求通过系统考察日本《帝国国防方针》制定、修改的背景、过程及其影响,揭示其世界性对外侵略霸权战略的本质。
全文共分为四个部分。
第一部分,日本“攻势国防”的确立——日本《帝国国防方针》的制定。明治初年,日本政府便制定了“布国威于四方”的国家发展方针。由于当时实力及国际环境等因素,日俄战前日本政府选择了“北守南进”的战略,采取了对俄等欧美列强的“守势”及对中国和朝鲜的进攻。甲午战后,日俄在中国东北的矛盾逐步激化,导致了日俄战争。日本胜利改变了其传统的国防态势,促使日本于1907年制定了《帝国国防方针》,确立了以俄为首要假想敌国、对中国扩张“国利国权”的“政略与战略统一”的“攻势国防”,确定了进攻性的世界战略。
第二部分,“对中国作战计划”的明确——《帝国国防方针》的首次修改。一战前,日本依靠与英、俄的同盟外交,逐步加快了独霸中国的步伐。一战的爆发使日本既看到了“天佑”时机,也感受到了“中国问题”前所未有的重要性。为此,陆军提出了“根本解决中国问题”的方针,并于1915年,日本政府向袁世凯政权提出了灭亡中国的“二十一条”,但遭到了国际社会的反对。对此陆军极其不满,要求修改《方针》,以确定对华的根本政策。1918年,天皇敕准了陆、海军对《方针》的修改案,确定了日本在中国建立霸权地位的根本方针。
第三部分,日本“海洋政策”的突显——《帝国国防方针再次修改。一战时,日本乘欧洲大战之机,占领了德属南洋群岛、构成对美国的战略有利态势,确立了与中国密不可分的关系,在苏俄远东地区及北满洲设置了安全地带、加强了大陆国防态势。但是,一战结束后,东亚国际关系发生了很大变化。美国势力大增,并欲遏制日本在亚太地区的扩张势头,特别是华盛顿体制重新规定了各列强在东亚、太平洋地区的地位,确立了新的东亚国际殖民秩序,对日本造成了巨大压力,日美两国摩擦加剧。1923年日本为摆脱国际压力,达成既定扩张目标,对《方针》进行了第二次修改。明确提出了保持对中国威慑的同时,将美国作为日本的第一主要假想敌国。在用兵纲领中以美、俄、中的次序制定作战计划,尤其是制定了更为详尽的对华作战计划,并成为以后日本对华发动战争的指导方针。
第四部分,日本“南北并进”战略的确定——《帝国国防方针》的第三次修改。1929至1933年发生的资本主义世界经济危机,使基础原较薄弱且缺乏资源的日本经济一蹶不振。为寻求出路,在国内法西斯浪潮推动下,日本发动了侵略中国的“九•一八”事变,占领了中国东北地区。日本独霸中国的野心,与在中国有着众多权益的英美等国的矛盾的激化在所难免了。为此,日本军部于1936年第三次修改了《帝国国防方针》,制定了更富进攻性、侵略性的对外政策。继而日本内阁通过了《国策基准》,将美国与苏联并列为主要的假想敌国,确定了“南北并进”的国策大纲,明确了立足大陆,北攻苏联,南击美国,称霸亚太的战略方针,标志着日本既定国策的全面强化。此后,日本发动了全面侵华战争和太平洋战争。
通过对日本对外霸权战略变化轨迹的考察,我们可以得知,日本对外侵略战略的形成与实施具有渐进性、暴力性和殖民性的特征,且对华战略是其霸权战略的核心与归宿。



The "Kingdom's national defence policy" of Japan embody a concentrated reflection of Japan in whole modern attack type world strategy of foreign aggression and expansion, it was Japan that participated in, launched the basic guidance policy of the world war later. It was made in 1907 after Russia -Japanese war, went through the modification three times of 1918, 1923 and 1936. The change of Japan's "Kingdom's national defence policy " has reflected the development orbit of Japanese government's foreign dominant strategy.
It investigates the background, course made, revised of the “kingdom’s national defence policy” and influences through the system that this text strive to be, announce its world invades the essence of dominant strategy to the outside.
The full text is divided into four parts altogether.
The first part, Establishment of Japan's "offensive national defence" --Formulation of Japan's " kingdom's national defence policy ". In the early years of Meiji era, Japanese government has made the national developing policy that " the national strength and prestige of the cloth is all sides ". Because of such factors as the strength and international environment, etc. at that time, the Japanese government chose the strategy that " keeps the south to enter in the north " in prewar in Japan and Russia, have adopted " defensive " to such American-European big powers as Russia, etc. and attack to China and Korea. The Sino-Japanese War is after the war, Japan and Russia sharpened progressively in the Chinese Northeastern contradiction, caused the Japan-Russia war. Japan victory changes its traditional national defence situation, impels Japan to make " kingdom's national defence policy " to 1907, have established the enemy state of primary imagination of regarding Russia as, to "offensive national defence" that "the policy is slightly unified with strategy" which China expand "right that the country benefits the nation", have confirmed offensive world is strategic.
The second part, It is clear "to the Chinese operation plan" --Initial modification of " kingdom's national defence policy ". Before the First World War, Japan has depended on quickening the steps of dominating China exclusively progressively with the alliance diplomacy of Great Britain, Russia. The outburst of a fight makes Japan see the opportunity that "it is helped", experience the unprecedented importance of "The question of China" too. For this reason, the policy that the ground force has proposed "solving China's problem at all", and in 1915, Japanese governments puts "21 Demands” forward to Yuan Shikai's regime, but been opposed by international community. Extremely discontented with this ground force, demand to revise "The policy", in order to confirm the basic policy to China. 1918, Mikado imperial decree allow land, navy modification case in "The policy”, confirm Japan set up dominant basic policy of status in China.
The third part, Japan's "Marine policy" is conspicuous --Modification again of "kingdom's national defence policy". While the First World War, Japan takes advantage of competition of Europe, captures Germany belong to Nan Yang archipelago, commits useful to strategy of U.S.A. situation, has establish it with the dense integral relation in China, has set up the safety area, strengthened the continent national defence situation in Su the Far East Area of Russia and north Manchu. However, after a fight, great changes have taken place in the international relations in East Asia. American force heightens, want to contain the expansion momentum in the Asian-Pacific area of Japan, especially the system of Washington has stipulated again all big powers are in east Asia, status in the Pacific area, establishes new world colonize the order of east Asia, has caused the enormous pressure to Japan, two countries of Japan and U.S.A. rub and aggravate. Japan reached the set goal of expanding, carried on the second modification to "The policy" in order to get rid of the international pressure in 1923. It is while deterring to China, regard American as first main imagination enemy state of Japan to keep to propose clearly. It is by U.S.A., Russia and China order in using military forces by guiding principle, in order to make operation plan, have especially made the more exhaustive operation plan to China, and become the guiding principle that Japan launches a war to China later.
The fourth part, Sureness of strategy that Japan "goes forward side by side in the north and south" --The third modification of "kingdom's national defence policy". 1929 to 1933 capitalist world economic crisis that take place, make foundation to be originally weak Japan economy of lacking of resource collapse after a single setback. In order to seek the opportunity, under the circumstances that the domestic fascist tide was promoted, Japan has mobilized "九•一八" incident which invades China, captures the Northeast of China. Japan dominates wild ambition of China exclusively; with have numerous Great Britain and America of rights and interests to sharpen unavoidable contradiction of country in China. For this reason, Japanese army headquarters revised “kingdom’s national defence policy" for the third time in 1936, made richer offensiveness, invading foreign policy. Then Japanese cabinet has stood side by side U.S.A. and the Soviet Union as the main imagination enemy state through "state basic policy datum", confirm the state basic policy outlines of "going forward side by side in the north and south", base on the continent clearly, attacks the Soviet Union in the north, hit U.S.A. in the south, dominates the Asian-Pacific strategy and policy, marks the strengthening in an all-round way of Japan's set state basic policy. After this, Japan launched the all-out war of aggression against China and the Pacific Ocean war.
Through the investigation of the changing orbit to Japan's foreign dominant strategy, we can learn, the forming and implementation that Japan invades strategy to the outside have advancing gradually nature, violence and colonizing characteristics, and core and home of its dominant strategy to China.