战后日本经济高速及其对我国的启示/

2019-04-19 09:33:28

The 日本 经济 高速 Japan



战后日本经济飞速发展,1955年-1973年是日本经济的高速发展时期,在这十几年间,日本从战败中站起,成为世界第二号经济强国,创造资本主义发展史上的奇迹,被称为“日本神话”。关于日本高速发展的原因,国内外学者已经做了很多研究,提出的原因有几十种。国内原因有:民主改革,资本积累,技术革新,设备投资,劳资关系,重化工业,企业经营管理,政府的经济计划与政策,节省军费,公共事业投资,政府与民间企业的合作,政治安定,教育水平等。国外原因有:朝鲜战争和越南战争的特需定货,科学技术的进步,资源与能源的供应充足,国外市场的扩大,汇率稳定,比较安定的国际形势等。无疑,日本经济的高速发展,是国内外各种因素综合作用的结果,但是这些因素哪些是主要的,起主导作用,各因素间的相互作用如何,都需要进一步的深入研究。本文在介绍日本战后经济发展历程的基础上,重点分析了1955-1973年间日本经济高速发展的情况,并分析其原因。接着对日本战后的经济发展做一些评价,简要分析日本经济萧条的原因并预测其发展前景。最后,针对日本经济高速发展的原因,结合日本经济体系的一些问题,提出一些可供我国经济发展借鉴的地方。
本文主要分为三个部分
第一部分为战后日本经济的高速增长过程。
本文介绍了日本二战后经济发展阶段的划分及特点。日本战后经济的发展主要分为五个阶段,分别是经济恢复阶段,高速增长阶段,低速增长阶段,泡沫经济阶段和经济萧条阶段。每个时期,日本经济的发展情况,如增长速度,增长特点都有所不同,文中做了简要介绍。
接着主要介绍日本在1955-1973年的高速增长阶段的情况。
在这个阶段,日本经济获得了高速发展,迅速实现了经济的现代化,跻身发达国家的行列。文中先介绍了这个阶段日本经济发展的历程,接着简要描述了日本经济在这个高速增长阶段取得的成就,具体表现为经济总量的增长,技术的进步,人民生活水平的提高,国际贸易的增长等。
第二部分是本文的中心部分,分析日本经济高速发展的原因。
在这部分中,本文分析了战后,主要是1955-1973年间日本经济高速发展的原因。本文认为日本经济在这十几年间能有如此高速的增长,是国内国际各种因素综合作用影响的结果。本文认为日本经济高速发展的原因主要有较好的客观环境,包括日本的经济基础,美国的扶持,朝鲜、越南战争的刺激,科技革命的影响,各主要资本主义国家经济的发展以及廉价的原料燃料等原因;大规模的设备投资,日本经济的启动主要是靠大规模的设备投资拉动的;技术引进和革新相结合,日本大力引进新技术,同时又注重对技术进行消化吸收和创新,从而缩小了和发达国家的技术差距,促进了经济的增长;贸易立国的基本国策,;政府正确的经济政策和产业政策;教育的发展和高素质的人力资源;富有活力的企业和企业制度。这些因素不是孤立地,而是互相联系和影响的。正是这些因素的交互作用,使得日本经济能够高速发展。最后用波特的国际竞争理论对日本高速增长的原因作了理论分析。
第三部分中,根据以上对日本经济高速发展原因的分析,提出了它给我们的一些启示。第一是设备投资与技术水平提高相结合,第二是政府和企业都要重视教育,第三是重视基础能源产业,第四是吸收与创新结合,形成具有本国特色的企业制度,第五是正确看待贸易在经济发展中的作用。虽然日本经济在1990年以后步入萧条,经济增长缓慢,但是日本所创造的经济奇迹是空前的。一方面我们应该大力借鉴其成功之处,另一方面,也要吸取其不足与失败的教训。




The Japan’s economy had great development after the Second World War From 1955 to 1973, Japan’s economy had grown so fast that it created a miracle in the history of economy development. During that period, Japan came out of the failure of The Second World War, and became the second strongest economical country in the world.
How can Japan grow so fast? Scholars home and abroad have researched the question and brought forward dozens of reasons, including domestic factors and overseas factors, such as democracy reforms, the accumulation of capital, the renovation of technology, the investment on facility, the relation between labor and capital, the development of heavy industry and chemical industry, the management of the firms, the economic plan and the policy of the Japanese government, low military expenditure, the investment of public sectors, the cooperation between the firms and the government, the stability of political environment, the civil nature of Japanese, the development of the education, the “special demand” from the USA during Korean War and the war of Vietnam, the development of science and technology over the world, the sufficient supply of resources and fuels, the world market, the steady exchange rate, relatively peaceful international environment and so on.
It is no doubt that Japan’s fast development is due to joint effects of all the factors above. We shall do further research to find out which factors are more important and how these factors influence each other. Firstly, the article introduces the process of development after The Second World War. Then it focuses on the process of development during 1955-1973. Then it analyzes the factors boosting Japan’s high-speed growth. Finally, it points out what China should learn from Japan to develop the economy.
This paper contains three parts.
The first part introduces the high-speed growth phase of Japan after The Second World War (1955-1973). At the beginning of this part, describes the process of Japan’s development after The Second World War, divided into five phases. The five phases are the recovery phase, the high-speed growth phase, the low-speed growth phase, the foamy economy phase, and the stagnant phase. During each phase, the economy growth has different characteristics.
During 1955-1973, the Japan’s economy had a high-speed growth, achieved modernization, and became a developed country. It introduces the process of this period and describes the outcome of the high-speed growth.
The third part is the core of this paper, analyzing the factors of Japan’s high-speed growth.
In this part, the author analyze how could Japan grow so fast after The Second World War, mainly from 1955-1973. There are many factors home and abroad enabled Japan to maintain a long run high growth rate.
The first factor is the good external environment, including the foundation of Japan economy, the support form the USA, the stimulation of Korean War and War of Vietnam, the science and technology revolution over the world, and the sufficient supply of raw material and fuel. The second is the large-scale facility investment. The third is introduction and amelioration of new technology. The fourth is the nation’s policy of international trade. The fifth is the government’s propriety economic policies. The sixth is the development of education .The seventh is competitive firms and the corporation system. Finally, we analyze the relation and influence between the factors. These factors working together created the miracle of Japan.
The fourth tells what China can learn form Japan’s successful experience and failure lessons.
The first is the combination of facility investment and technology improvement. The second is both the government and firms should pay more attention to education. The third is pay attention to the basic industries. The forth is to form effective corporation systems of Chinese style. The fifth is to treat the effect of international trade correctly.