战后日本物流业发展及其启示/

2019-04-18 20:45:30

logistics 物流 industry 物流业 Japan



随着现代科学技术的迅猛发展,全球经济一体化趋势的不断加强,各国都面临着前所未有的机遇和挑战。现代物流作为一种先进的组织方式和管理技术,被广泛认为是企业在降低物耗、提高劳动生产率以外的重要利润源泉,在国民经济和社会发展中发挥着重要作用。日本物流业的发展己有较长的历史,在世界处于领先水平,特别是日本政府为了扶持物流产业的发展所采取的一些宏观政策导向,给日本物流产业带来快速发展的实践经验,对我国具有极为有益的启示。本文分为将分为六个部分对日本物流业的发展及对我国的启示进行分析。
第一部分,物流理论的发展。在探讨物流概念的由来和物流定义的基础上,指出现代物流业的产业定位:物流业归属于第三产业中的运输业,区别于传统运输业,与传统运输业并存,共同属于第三产业的运输业;通过对国际物流研究学说的比较,以“配第—克拉克”定理阐述了物流业发展的理论机制;通过分析现代物流业在国民经济中的地位与作用,指出现代物流业未来的发展趋势。
第二部分,日本物流业的产生与发展。在分析日本物流的变迁、日本物流业的不同发展阶段及其物流理念和手段的基础上,指出日本物流业发展的特点:物流基础设施完善、重视物流管理创新、物流信息资源网络化、物流业专业化。并阐述了物流业对日本国民经济的贡献与影响:提高日本的国际竞争力和综合国力、提高产业竞争力、成为国民经济中的支柱产业,同时搞高整体社会效率并为国民创造更多的余暇和生活便利。
第三部分,日本现代物流系统与管理。日本现代物流较传统物流的最大区别是系统化,日本物流系统化的内容包括大量化、共同化、短路化、自动化、信息化。在物流管理方面,全国没有统一的物流管理部门,非政府组织如物流系统学会在协助政府进行物流管理中发挥重要的作用,日本物流管理的重要目标之一就是降低企业成本。日本物流管理依靠政府和民间共同建立的一套物流管理体制以及一个完善的现代化物流系统网络,也得益于科学技术研究的有力支持和物流管理人才的培养。追求第三利润源和降低物流成本,成为日本物流企业管理创新的主要动力,企业通过物流管理创新,包括:新的物流管理方法、标准化物流作业、整合物流供应链资源、更新物流管理理念、使用新技术等,实现企业目标。
第四部分,日本政府的物流产业政策。日本政府认为物流业的发展对提高国家经济活力有着重要的战略意义,政府在20世纪90年代开始出台了一系列发展物流业的政策措施,政策的基本目标是在21世纪使日本国内物流基础设施建设进一步完善,并实现国际水平的物流运作。日本物流产业政策的重点内容是建设和完善物流基础设施,进一步放宽对物流业的规制,使物流业完全按照市场运作的规律更加富有活力地发展。敏锐把握世界物流发展趋势,确立21世纪日本物流发展战略,其主要目标是把电子信息通信技术广泛应用于物流领域,发展该领域的系统化和网络化技术,并使其适时更新换代,从而全方位地提高和保证交通运输的安全性和物流的准确、快速、节省和高效性,并提高日本物流业在全球的国际竞争力和影响力。
第五部分,日本政府在物流业发展中的作用。面对国内外经济形势的不断变化,日本政府适时地对流通产业和物流事业相关的法律及法规进行了清理、废除,并制定了新的法规,通过宏观政策的指导和引导作用,促使已经比较先进和完善的日本物流系统又向着更加先进、科学、合理的目标发展。
第六部分,日本物流业发展对中国的启示。日本物流业的发展是其特定的经济社会状况、产业格局和具体国情的综合反映,日本在发展物流产业方面走出了一条符合国情的道路,物流业的发展不仅降低社会生产成本、开辟新的利润源,更有利于确保日本“贸易立国”、“海运立国”国家发展战略的实施和实现。借鉴日本物流业的发展经验,结合中国的实际,本文提出中国加快发展现代物流业的对策:一是在目前经济全球化趋势下,特别是我国加入WTO及从整体上提高我国经济国际竞争力的需要出发,政府要把现代物流业作为国民经济的重要产业和基础性产业给予高度重视,把发展现代物流产业作为新世纪我国经济新的增长源,采取有力政策和措施,引导和促进我国物流产业的发展,在发展现代物流业过程中政府要扮演好三个角色;基础建设的创造者;产业进步的推动者;市场运行秩序的维护者。二是国家需要设立具有统一协调职能的专门工作机构,组织各有关部门,尽快制定相关政策或者建立健全有关法规规范市场的经营行为,制定出既符合现代物流要求、又能充分利用和整合各种存量资源、也可优化增量配置的全国物流产业发展规划,并按照规划构建我国运输大通道和物流体系,合理设立综合物流中心或物流基地,有计划推动全国物流的各项工作。三是加快我国物流配送基础设施的建设和技术改造,鼓励和吸引社会资金投资物流行业,国家在增加投入的同时,对物流配送设施的建设给予一些低息或贴息贷款支持。四是大力推进物流标准化和信息化进程。五是要加快物流人才的培养和加大物流理论研究的投入。




Along with the rapid development of modern science and technology, the enhancing trend of global economic integration is increasingly has brought unprecedented opportunities and challenges to each country. As an advanced organizational mode and management technology, modern logistics is widely recognized as another profit resource for corporate after reducing materials consumption and improving labor productivity and is playing a significant roll in the national economy and social development. Japan’s logistics industry has been developed for a long time and is in the leading position in the world. Especially the macro policy guidance adopted by the government of Japan to support the logistics industry and the practical experiences which accelerated rapid development of Japan’s logistics industry, are of very useful enlightenment for us. The paper in 6 parts made an analysis on the enlightenment of the development of Japan’s logistics industry.
Part I ,states the development of logistics theory. Based on the researches on the origin of concept of logistics and the definition of logistics, the paper pointed out the industrial position of modern logistics that it shall be classified in the transportation industry of the third industry. It differs from but coexists with the traditional transportation and both of them are classified in the transportation industry of the third industry. Through the comparison of the theories of logistics in the world and demonstrated the theoretical mechanism of the development of logistics industry with Pitty-Clark’s Law. After an analysis on the position and roll of modern logistics industry in the national economy, the paper points out the future development trend of the logistics industry.
Part II, the formation and development of Japan’s logistics industry. Based on an analysis on the changes of Japan’s logistics industry, the different development stages and its logistics theories and method, the paper outlines the characteristics of the development Japan’s logistics industry, i.e. sound basic facilities, emphasizing on logistics management innovation, logistics information networknization and logistics specialization. This part also elaborates the contribution and influence of logistics industry to Japan’s national economy: it strengthened Japan’s international competitiveness and overall national strength, improved its industrial competitiveness and became the pillar industry in the national economy. At the same time the logistics industry improved the total social efficiency and created more spare time and convenience to the peoples.
Part Ⅲ, Japan’s modern logistics system and management. Comparing to the traditional logistics, Japan’s modern logistics is more systemic. The systematization of Japan’s logistics includes large volume, sharing, shortcutting, automation and informationalization. In the respect of logistics management, there is no centralized logistics administration, some non-governmental organization such as logistics association plays a important roll in assisting the government to carry out logistics management. One of the major objectives of Japan’s logistics management is to reduce operation cost. Japan’s logistics management depends on the logistics management system and a well-built modern logistics network jointly established by the government and civil organization, and is also benefited from powerful support from scientific research and logistics personnel cultivation. Pursuing the third profit source and reducing logistics cost are main motivation of the management innovation of Japan’s logistics enterprises. Enterprises achieve business objectives through management innovation, including new logistics management method, standard logistics operation, integrated logistics supply resources, updated logistics management theory and utilization of new technology.
Part Ⅳ, Policies of Japan’s government on logistics industry. In the opinion of Japan’s government, the development of logistics industry will be of strategic significance to improve the national economy. Therefore, in the 90s of 20th century, the government enacted a series of policies, the basic objective of which is to further improve the basic logistics facilities and to raise the logistics operation to an international level in the 21st century. The key of Japan’s logistics industrial policy is to construct and perfect the basic logistics facilities, further loosen the restrictions on logistics industry so as to activate the same to develop according to market rules. To master the logistics development trend of the world and set up the strategy for the development of logistics in the 21st century and aim at the broad application of electronic, information and communication technology in logistics area, to develop the systemic and network technology in the field and upgrade them in time, thus to from all aspects improve and ensure the safety of the transportation and the properness, express and cost-efficient of the logistics and to improve the international competitiveness and influence of Japan’s logistics.
Part V, the role of Japan’s government in the development of logistics. Facing with the changes in the domestic and foreign economic situation, Japan’s government properly liquidated and abandoned some laws and regulations on circulation and logistics industries, promotes Japan’s logistics system more perfect, scientific and reasonable through macro policy guidance.
Part VI, enlightenment brought by Japan’s logistics industry to China. The development of Japan’s logistics industry comprehensively reflects Japan’s specific economic and social conditions, industrial structure and actual position. In the logistics industry development, Japan had made a way that complies with its actual national situation. The growth of logistics industry not only reduced social productive cost, developed a new profit source, but also ensured the implementation of its national development strategies of Prospering the Country with Trade and Ocean Transportation. Referring to Japan’s experiences in logistics development and take into account the actual condition of China, the paper proposed several measures for accelerating the development of modern logistics in China. Firstly, in the general courses of international economic integration especially after China’s entry into the WTO, and starting from the point of improving China’s international competitiveness, the government shall pay special attention to modern logistics as the key and basic industry in the national economy, deems the logistics industry as a new economic growth source in the new century. When developing the modern logistics, the government needs to play three rolls i.e. the creator of basic construction, propellent of industrial advance, supervisor of the market operation orders. Secondly, the state needs to set up a dedicated authority with centralized coordination function, to organize concerned departments to formulate related policies or establish and improve regulations to standardize the market operations, formulate a development plan for the national logistics industry which can meet the modern logistics requirements, give full play to and integrate various existing resources, optimize increment allocation. And to construct grand channels and logistics system of the country, establish comprehensive logistics centers or bases according to the planned scheme, thus to promote the national logistics operation. Thirdly, to accelerate the construction and technical reconstruction of the basic logistics and distribution facilities, encourage and attract social fund to be invested in the logistics industry. When increasing the investment in logistics industry, it is important to provide some supports such as low-rate loans or discount government loans to the construction of logistics distributing facilities. Fourthly, to push the progress of logistics standardization and informationalization. And the fifthly is to accelerate the cultivation of logistics personnel and enhance the investment in the research on logistics theory.