阿赖耶识缘起研究——以《成唯识论》为主/

2019-04-12 18:02:32

dependent origination 阿赖耶识 缘起 vijnana



缘起理论作为佛教思想的理论基石,是佛教区别于其他流派的基本思想特征,与无因论、偶因论、一因论等理论根本对立。正因为缘起理论的重要地位,所以各宗都从自己的角度阐述缘起的道理,从这个意义上说,对缘起的不同理解是佛教各宗形成的主要原因之一。
阿赖耶识缘起与其他缘起理论的区别,可以概括为四个字“唯识无境”:(1)“阿赖耶识缘起”完善了原始佛教 “业感缘起”的思想,用“习气”代替了“业”,同时规定执持习气的阿赖耶识的存在,就解决了原始佛教“轮回说”与“无我论”之间的矛盾。(2)“阿赖耶识缘起”同一切有部的“实有缘起”一样追求缘起理的根基,它认为是阿赖耶识。它进一步把阿赖耶识规定为“非断非常”性,阿赖耶识与其中的种子不一不异,种子才生即灭,无间生起,所以阿赖耶识本身也是待缘的存在,这就破除了阿赖耶识的实体相。(3) “阿赖耶识缘起”同意大乘空宗“八不缘起”现象即缘起,缘起即性空的主张,并且进一步否认离识之境的存在,认为境象无非是虚妄分别所生。同时主张识体存在,为人们的修行的可能性和必要性找到根据。
同时大乘有宗认为缘起理就在现象之中,离开现象没有缘起理。这样就驳斥了所谓“空理”为体,“现象”为用的主张。认为现象与缘起理体用一如。缘起理是在八识之间、种子与现行体现出来的四缘理。所以可以从三个角度来分析阿赖耶识缘起:1、八识之间的关系。2、现行、习气、种子之间的关系。3、唯识四缘。
有情众生各有自体八识:眼识、耳识、鼻识、舌识、身眼、第六意识、第七识、第八识。其中有情众生在没有得到解脱前,它的第七识恒是染性,称为末那识,同时他的第八识称为 阿赖耶识。
阿赖耶识又称为藏识,这里的藏有三义:能藏、所藏、执藏。所谓能藏是指阿赖耶识具有摄藏万法种子的功用。所藏是指阿赖耶识中的种子。执藏是指被第七末那识执为“自内我”。阿赖耶识与种子之间的关系说明了阿赖耶识本身的“非断非常”性。就解决了佛教中“轮回说”与“无我说”之间的矛盾。阿赖耶识是前七识转变所依止的根本,前七识都是阿赖耶识中的种子变现,这种变现包括见分(能缘境相的能力)、相分(所缘的境相)。末那识恒审思虑,没有间断,但它执第八阿赖耶识为自内我,所以恒为染污,故此有情总是有一种自我的牵挂,这种潜藏的自我是有情流转的重要原因。末那识的存在解放了第六意识,有效地解决了“缘起”与“抉择”之间的矛盾,为有情找到了解脱的根据。第六意识与六心所都相应,对于同一境、同一受可以有不同的心所,有情的抉择就在其中。当然抉择是有限的抉择,它依然受到生起它的种子的影响,但是,正是这种有限的抉择直接决定有情在轮回中的位置。前五识(眼识、耳识、鼻识、舌识、身识)是了境识,所起待缘众多。
前七转识与阿赖耶识之间的关系可以通过现行、习气、种子之间的关系来说明。所谓现行,是指由种子变现而来的前七识及其见分、相分、性、界、地、有漏、无漏、报、非报等等。现行(除佛果善因为圆满和极劣无记因为无势力外)对于阿赖耶识都有熏习作用。这种作用在阿赖耶识中留下习气,习气成熟就是种子,种子才生即灭,转变成现行,现行又熏习阿赖耶识。所以,习气是未成熟的种子,种子是已成熟了的习气。
八识之间的关系,现行、习气、种子之间的关系都可以归为四缘:因缘、等无见缘、所缘缘、增上缘。(1)只有现行和种子才有因缘义。种子才生即灭,能够产生与自己性、相无别的现行。现行熏习阿赖耶识,产生等流习气,能够引生与自己性、相相同的种子。(2)等无间缘指前念识对后念识的无间生起有开导,所以在此同意安慧法师关于异类识可作开导依的见解。同时,只有这样理解,才能更好说明从“无心五位”起,何以能有前六识;阿赖耶识、末那识如何能从有漏转无漏。(3)所缘之境对能缘之心、心所的生起有功用,这种关系就是所缘缘。由于大乘有宗根本否认离识之境的存在,所以所缘缘是识上相分与见分、自体八识之间的关系。(4)于其他法的生起有作用,则为增上缘。其中最为殊胜的是二十二根。所谓根是指相应法生起的必要条件,缺根就不能生起。比如人的眼睛有毛病,就没有眼识,说明他却眼根;一个人不信仰佛教,可以说他的阿赖耶识中没有无漏种子,也可以说他没有信根。
总而言之,大乘有宗提出阿赖耶识缘起理论,从而根本否认了离识之境的存在,把缘起理奠基在不断生成流变的阿赖耶识之上,避免陷入抽象的实体论;它否认八识的实体性,却承认八识的存在,就避免了陷入虚无之中;同时阿赖耶识缘起理论通过提出六识外另有第七、第八识的存在,解放了第六意识,从而解决了“轮回说”与“无我说”、“缘起”与“抉择”之间的矛盾,这对佛教理论发展的具有重要意义。



Law of Dependent Origination is the theoretical foundation of Buddhism which even makes Buddhism different from other religions. Just because Law of Dependent Origination’s important status of theory, so every sect explain Law of Dependent Origination from own angle in this sense, the thing that different understanding of Law of Dependent Origination is the main reason that every one sect of Buddhism is formed of.

The difference between Dependent Origination of a^laya and others can be summarized as four words:”the vijnana is the only being.” (1) Dependent Origination of a^laya had perfected primitive Buddhism Thought of “karma of Dependent Origination”. It replace "karma " with " va^sana^ " and stipulate that a^laya holds va^sana at the same time .It solve the contradiction between “samsara” and “anatman”. (2) Dependent Origination of a^laya pursue foundation with “Dependent Origination of subshance” of “yi Qie YouBu “, stipulate it for the " non- broken and non-eternal”.It is not same with or different from the seed it hangs on. The seed was just produced and lost. I t grows constantly forever. So its production needs the condition too. This has abolished its entity nature. Dependent Origination of a^laya the opinion of “Dependent Origination of Eight negations “replacing Dharma with phenomenon with Kong Zong. It denies that there is existence of the phenomenon without vijnana. it thinks the phenomenon is produced by the difference unappropriately. It advocate the existence of vijnana.It find the possibility and the necessity of practise of people.

YouZong argued that Law of Dependent Origination exists in the phenomenon. There is no Law of Dependent Origination without phenomenon. Law of Dependent Origination is The Four Dependent Origination that exist in the relation between the eight vijnana, between the abhisam!ska^ra and va^sana^ and seed. So we can anlysis Dependent Origination of a^laya from three angles: first, the eight vijnana and their relations.second,the relation between abhisam!ska^ra and va^sana^ and seed. third, The Four Dependent Origination.

Everyone has its own eight vijnana from eye vijnana to the eighth vijnana.the manas_ vijnana will be klis!t!a without having nirvana forever. On the same time ,the eighth vijnana is named a^laya .

The a^laya has three meanings: first, all kinds of seeds can be held by it; second,there are all seeds in it . third, it is always argreed as “myself” by manas_ vijnana.The seven vijnana before only can be produced in term of the a^laya .this switching include the ablity and the objiect.The manas_ vijnana always hold the a^laya as “myself”,so it is klis!t!a. this is the important reason of pravr!tti. It is the manas_ vijnana that liberates the sixth vijnana. It solve the contradiction between ““Dependent Origination” and “Self-Choice”. the sixth vijnana has all the caitta, so it can make many choices freely. The existence of the five vijnana (from eye vijnana to body vijnana) need many conditions, so I t does exist all time .

The relation between the seven vijnana and the a^laya can be explained by the relation between the abhisam!ska^ra and va^sana^ and seed. the abhisam!ska^ra is the ablity, objiect, prakr!ti, dha^tu, P&rdotblw, sa^srava, ana^sravah!,and so on. It has the influence on the the a^laya and leaves the va^sana^. the va^sana^ will chang into seed when it matured. The seed was just produced and lost. I t grows constantly forever. It switchs into abhisam!ska^ra without interval.

All the relation can be generalized into The Four Dependent Origination; hetu-pratyaya, samanantara-pratyaya, a^lambana-pratyaya, adhipati-pratyaya. Fist, hetu-pratyaya, It only exists in the relation between abhisam!ska^ra and seed. Second, samanantara-pratyaya. That the priorty arouses the back is called samanantara-pratyaya. so AN HUI is right . the relation between the heterogeneous vijnana exists samanantara-pratyaya. Third, a^lambana-pratyaya. That the object can arouse the ablity is a^lambana-pratyaya. Four , adhipati-pratyaya. If one thing has the effct on other thing ,there is adhipati-pratyaya. Among them ,the indriya is special. The indriya is the indispensable condition that the vijnana arises.

Generally speaking, KongZong contribute to the theory of Buddhism through the Dependent Origination of a^laya.