当代日本青少年道德教育体系研究/

2019-04-12 06:54:19

The education moral Japan 道德教育




论 文 摘 要

当代日本青少年的道德教育有其深厚的理论渊源。从历史上来看,儒教、佛教和日本的神道教,这三大宗教对日本人伦理道德的形成具有很大的影响,再加上日本特有的地理环境、风土、气候等影响和作用,构成了当今日本特有的道德教育体系。
“清明之心”的伦理道德思想是根据日本民间传说发展演变形成的,它强调尊重权威,敬畏神灵;尊重人类和社会的正义;忘却自我,放弃包括自身生命在内的个人得失。但这一思想观念也成为使日后军国主义思想泛滥的原因之一。自公元五世纪左右,中国的儒家思想和佛教传入日本后,日本人的道德伦理观念开始发生变化。随着接受中国思想文化程度的加深,“正直”和“真诚”在日本伦理道德中所占的比重越来越大,加上“清明之心”共同构成日本较原始的伦理道德思想。“勤俭节约”的道德思想产生于公元十七世纪的江户时期,当时的思想家石田梅岩将其与正直联系起来,认为勤俭节约已不是经济上的事,而是向与人生来就有的“正直之心”的回归,这样就把日本原始的道德观——正直和勤俭节约联系了起来。综上所述,日本人自古形成了以清明之心、正直、真诚和勤俭节约为主流的伦理道德观念,这些观念对日后日本道德伦理的发展产生了重大的影响。
封建社会的道德教育主要是武士道德教育和庶民道德教育。武士道精神要求武士要忠于主君、信佛敬礼、崇尚武勇、重恩义、轻生死、甘愿为主君和本家族的利益而献身。庶民道德教育思想是以庶民所要遵守的道德规范为标准,其核心内容是要求庶民要“安分守己”,奉行勤劳、简朴、节约等道德标准。但不论是武士道德教育还是庶民道德教育都受当时严格的封建等级制度的制约。明治维新时期的道德教育贯彻“和魂洋才”的思想。由于政府实行“文明开化”政策,大量西方的技术、思想、文化涌入日本,政府为实现“富国强兵”这一目标,提出了“和魂洋才”的教育思想,所谓的“和魂洋才”就是指东洋精神,西洋技术,或者说日本的民族精神与西方的科技能力相结合。日本长期以来把“和魂洋才”作为建国的指导方针和教育工作的根本指导思想。“和魂洋才”体现出日本人强烈希望保留自己固有的文化、自己的生活方式,但同时还要建立起一个具有与西方国家相匹敌的现代国家的愿望,并且这种愿望直到今天已经成为“经济巨人”的时候都没有改变。
进入近代后,受西方道德伦理观的影响,日本的近代启蒙思想家也努力用近代道德伦理来塑造日本国民。其代表人物及其理论主要有:福泽谕吉的知识、道德的进步和自主独立的观点;西周的功利主义“人世三宝”思想;西村茂树的善良的国民道德和教育思想。可以说,近代启蒙思想家们的伦理启蒙思想为日本实现现代化,跻身于近代强国之列作出了极大的贡献。
日本道德教育体系的形成可将其分为三个阶段:第一阶段,封建末期至明治维新前。这一阶段,现代学校制度尚未确立,但在各级各类学校中都开设以封建神道、武士道、儒教伦理为核心的封建伦理道德教育。第二阶段,明治维新时期至二战结束前。这一阶段又分为三个时期:第一个时期,对欧美国家的教育模仿时期。这个时期在注重儒学、国学的同时,从西方引进了资本主义社会中的一些注重功用与实用的思想,主要以效仿法国的教育制度而制定的《学制令》的颁布标志着日本教育进入了近代时期。第二个时期,道德教育日本化与西洋化之间的纷争时期。这一时期,由于新涌入的西方思想和日本旧思想的对立,人们对新“学制”的批判对口授修身课的不满,给明治初期的道德教育带来了极大的混乱,明治政府看到这一现象后颁布了一系列的法令、法规力图结束这场纷争。第三个时期,国家主义教育制度的确立时期。1890年颁布的《教育敕语》标志着国家主义教育制度的确立,表明在以后的半个多世纪里,人们对道德教育就不能再有什么议论了,道德教育的任务就成了彻底灌输这一敕语。在学校的道德教育中疯狂推行民族沙文主义和军国主义思想,极大地摧残人的个性发展,致使日本人民陷入战争的深渊。
第三阶段为二战后至今。这一阶段共进行了三次主要的道德教育改革。第一次道德教育改革是二战结束后,以美军为主的联合国进驻日本后,针对当时的极端国家主义的教育进行了改革,将原有的修身、历史、地理合并在一起,再加上伦理、社会常识、法律等新设了社会课;第二次道德教育改革是以增开特设道德教育时间为主要标志。增开道德时间是日本战后道德教育的一个重大转折点。“道德时间”一方面坚持通过全部教育活动来进行道德教育的全面主义原则,另一方面又有专门的道德时间对整个学校的道德教育进行补充、深化和整合。第三次道德教育改革,开始于八十年代,这次改革强调确立德育的首要位置,将原来的“智、德、体”的顺序改为“德、智、体”,并在德育方法上更注重个性的培养。
战后日本道德教育的内容大概有五方面:个性教育、爱国主义教育、人生观教育、国际化教育以及劳动教育。这些内容都是紧紧围绕其经济发展这一中心思想,并随着经济的发展变化,不断对学校道德教育的目标和内容进行调整。
现行的日本国民教育体系是由学校教育和社会教育这两大部分组成,日本的德育也是由学校教育中的德育和社会教育中的德育构成。学校教育中的德育方法是通过专门的德育、各学科教学中的德育及特别活动中的德育三种途径进行的。社会教育在日本被定义为“有组织的校外教育活动”。从教育范围来看,社会教育比学校教育更广泛,因而日本十分重视利用社会教育的场所、设施、人力、财力等资源及社会教育的内容和形式,进行直接的和间接的品德教育。从日本社会教育中的德育来看,主要采用了以下四种方法:一,定期进行宏观调查,及时提出整改措施。二,加强家庭教育指导,重视家庭教育研究。三,利用各类社会设施,联合各界教育力量,开展不同层次的品德教育。四,利用大众传媒和社会文化生活,开展强大的宣传教育。
通过对日本道德教育的理论体系、内容体系及方法体系进行全面的分析、研究,总结其有益的经验有:一,突出道德教育的主导地位;二,树立东西融合的道德教育意识;三,学校内部途径的多样化;四,建立大德育的教育体系。
我国正处于应试教育向素质教育的转型期,通过对日本道德教育体系的研究分析,我国的教育改革应注意以下几个问题:首先,要树立全社会重视道德教育的观念;其次,道德教育必须与经济发展相协调、相配套;第三,要适应社会的发展不断进行道德教育的反思和改革。





Abstract

The present moral education in Japan theoretically relates much to its history and geographical location. Historically, the three religions, Confucianism, Buddhism, and the Japan Taoism, have exerted great influence on the morality of Japanese people. In addition, the special geographical environment, custom and climate of Japan also contribute a lot to the formation of current moral education system in this country.
The ethnics of “clarified minds” was originated from the Japanese folk legends, which respects authority, reveres gods, admires human justice and ignores individuality, even one’s life. But what we should also recognize is that it is this moral principal that also attributes to the overflow of the post-militarism. Since the spread of Chinese Confucianism and Buddhism to Japan in around 5th century, the ethnics of Japanese people began to change gradually. With the influence of Chinese culture, “integrity” and “sincerity” played a more and more important role in Japanese ethnics, which, together with “clarified minds” became the primitive Japanese ethnics. The moral principle of “diligence and thrift” originated in the “Jianghu Period” in 17th century when the moralist Shitian Meiyuan concerned himself with integrity. In his opinion, it is not an economical issue to be thrifty, but it should be regarded as a return of the human’s born nature of “minds of integrity”. In this way, Japanese people formed the ethnics with the core of clarification, integrity and thrift. These moral principles exerted great influence on the development of later Japanese ethnics.
The moral education in feudalism of Japan was mainly the warriors’ moral education and the multitude’s moral education. “The spirit of warriors” requires warriors be loyal to their lord and Buda, show respect to courage and bravery, ignore life and death, and more importantly, willingly devote themselves to their lord and their family interest. The multitude’s moral education requires common people “abide by the law and behave oneself”. They should act according to the moral standard of “diligence, thrift, and simplicity.”
After modern times, with the influence of western ethnics, the rudimentary moralists of Japan tried their best to impart modern ethnics to Japanese people. The representative figures and their theories included: Fuze Yuji’s idea on knowledge, advanced morality and self-dependence; Xizhou’s utilitarianism; Xicun Maoshu’s kind citizen moral and education. In a word, these rudimentary moralists made a great contribution to Japan’s modernization and the being of one of the strongest countries in the world.
The moral education system in Japan can be divided into three stages. The first stage is from the late feudalism to the period before “Meiji Restoration.” In this period, modern institutional system had not been set up, but every school in every level had already had the moral education which focused on feudal Taoism, Warrior Taoism and Confucianism. The second stage is from the period of “Meiji Restoration” to the period before World War II. This stage can be further divided into three periods. The first period is to imitate western countries. In this period, with the emphasis of Confucianism, a lot of practical an utilized ideas were introduced from the capitalist countries. The second period saw the conflict between the Japanese and westernization of moral education while the third period is the formation of nationalist educational system.
The third stage is from the postwar period to the present. This stage saw three major ethnical reforms. The first reform took place after WWII. The second reform was symbolized by adding the specific time period for moral education. The third reform started from 1980s. This reform emphasized the major role of ethnics in education. The order of three educational requirements was changed from “intelligence, morality and health” to “morality, intelligence and health,” putting morality in the most important place. At the same time the more individualized education was emphasized.
The content of post war moral education in Japan manly consists of five aspects: the education on individualization, on patriotism, on life value, on internationalization and on labor. All these content are centered on the economical development of the country. With the economical development, the aim and content of moral education in schools were adjusted accordingly.
Current national educational system in Japan is made up of two parts—education in school and education in society. Similarly, the moral education in Japan is also composed of the one in school and the one in society. The moral education in school is constituted with the specific moral education, the moral education for different majors and the moral education in special activities. On the other hand, social moral education is defined as “systematical educational activities off campus.” As far as the range of education is concerned, social education concerns wider than school education. As a result, Japan pays much emphasis on taking advantage of different aspects of social education, specifically, the public places, establishments, human resources and financial resources, to carry out ethical education in a direct or indirect way. The following four methods have been adopted as to social moral education in Japan: 1. to make surveys between certain period of time so as to make some policies of adjustment; 2. to reinforce the education at home and emphasize domestic education; 3. to take advantage of different social activities so as to unify the education potential in different fields to carry out the ethical education in different level; 4. to take advantage of mass media and the cultural activities in society so as to publicize the ethical education.
Through the thorough analysis and study on the theory system, content system and method system of Japan’s moral system. The following valuable experiences can be concluded: 1) the major role of moral education need to be emphasized; 2) The convergence of the Eastern and Western ethnical thoughts is quite necessary; 3) the teaching methods in schools should be diversified. 4) the moral education need to bear a larger sense.
Our country is in the period transforming form the test-oriented education to the quality-oriented education. Through the study and analysis on the moral education system of Japan, our educational system may draw the following lessons: first, the whole society should attach great importance to moral education; second, moral education deed to coordinate with the economical development; third, we should constantly take reform and adjustment on moral education to cater to the development of the society.