论 文 摘 要
All of the Japanese were shocked heavily when they heard that Japan had to return the Liaodong Peninsulas to the Qing government forced by Russia, France and German while they were being immersed in the victory of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895.The rulers of Japanese government felt lonely and helpless. To shake off this difficult situation, Japan decided to ally with some other countries. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was an important thing in the Japanese modern diplomatic history and it has much worse effect on the history of Sino-Japanese relationship. So we had enough reason to deepen the study of this question.
The abrupt rising of Japan greatly changed the balance of the international strength of the Far East Area. The fact that the Great Qing empire was defeated by the little island Japan shocked the western powers. Russia, France and German interfered the result of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 for their own interests. At last they forced Japan to abandon the Liaodong Peninsulas to China. At the same time, the failure of the Qing Dynasty and the signature of the Treaty of Shimonoseki stimulated the dismembering desire of the western powers for the weak Qing Dynasty. Japan wanted to capture Xiamen during the dismembering waves. But it failed at last because of the interruption of the powers. After a whole series of such kinds of things happened, Japan decided to ally with one or more of the powers. The Great Britain was one of the best countries which Japan could choose to ally with. At the same time, the development of English economy was decreasing, so it also needed a friendly country to protect its economic profits in the Far East Area and resist Russian from expanding to the Chinese South. The victory of the newly rising Japan in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 testified the Japanese strength and this won for Japan the good feeling of England. Quickly Japan and England reached agreement on the base of the same interests.
In order to avenge itself on the Russian interruption in the Japanese occupation of the Liaodong peninsulas, in order to push the Russian strength out of Korea and strengthen Japanese influence in Korea instead, and in order to expand Japanese influence into the Chinese northeast, in 1904, Japan launched the Russia-Japanese War on Chinese land. With the help of England, Japan won the War and Russia failed. Accordingly Japan had the Korean situation under its control. And this prepared the best chance for Japan to invade into China. The Russia-Japanese War was an aggressive war of the two imperialist countries that was launched by Japan and Russia which depended on aggression for other countries. The War enslaved Chinese people by force and invaded Chinese sacred land ownership seriously. In the War, the land of Chinese northeast area was wantonly trampled, and a vast majority of Chinese people were insulted and murdered. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was revised and resigned. Japanese victory in the Russia-Japanese War and the revision of the Alliance forced Russia to recognize that Japan owned “special interests” in Korea, and to transfer the possession of the aggressive interests in Chinese northeast to Japan. In this war, Japan not only captured Chinese resource but also attained a lot of interests from Russia in the absence of the Qing Government and so far as to seize many other privileges from the incompetent rulers of Qing Dynasty when Japan forced the Qing Government to subsequently confirm the fact that Japan had transferred the possession of Chinese northeast area from Russia. For more victory in the aggressive war and with the help of the protecting umbrella of the Anglo-Alliance, the desire of Japanese expanding into China was more rampant. This fact partly aroused the Powers’ public indignation and especially led America to protest that Japan had implemented the policy that wanted to push other countries’ capital out of Chinese northeast area. In order to enlarge the diplomatic base and resist the expanding desire of American capital into Chinese northeast area, Japan decided to ally with Russia to resist America side by side. Japan and Russia reached agreement and signed the Russia-Japanese Treaty and the secret treaty in 1907. These treaties and the Anglo-Russian Treaty changed the inter-national situation of the Far East Area. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was revised once more in 1911 in order to meet the changed situation. Japan wanted to make use of the chance that the Revolution of 1911 broke out before long in China to expand its strength into the South China. This aroused England to protest. Japan disagreed with English attitude on the revolution and the system of China. In order to control China completely, Japan wanted to implement the dividing and ruling policy in China but England did its utmost to maintain Chinese unity so as to safeguard its economic profits in China. The difference between Japan and England enlarged more and more. At the beginning of the First World War, Japan declared war to German and soon after occupied Chinese Shandong by force and captured the Pacific Island that had belonged to German claiming to help its allied country-England. Before long Japan advanced the Twenty-one Demands to Chinese government that vainly attempted to conquer China. These strong and unreasonable demands led Chinese people and western powers to protest strongly, but Japan reached its aim in other way most partly at last so that Japan set up its absolutely dominant position in China during the First World War. After the First World War, the western imperialism countries came back to Chinese market and demanded to restore or even enlarge their privileges in China. These demands conflicted with Japan that had set up its superiority in China. In order to avoid war and alleviate the contradiction between Japan and the western powers, America convened the Washington Conference on which America would apart the Anglo-Japanese Alliance that was on the point of ending. So far the Alliance finished its twenty years’ history and declared its ending. Ten years later Japan launched invading war by force to China and attacked by force in surprise to America for avenging twenty years later.
The Anglo-Japanese Alliance had become the protecting umbrella for Japanese invading China during its existing and remaining period. But it also partly limited Japanese massive expanding in China following with its strengthening. Its Continental Policy asked Japan to act according to its own interests in China and then the Anglo-Japanese Alliance limited Japanese action instead. So the disintegration of the Alliance is the historic logical result.