日英同盟在日本侵华史上的影响/

2019-04-12 04:26:44

Chinese 日本 China Japanese Japan



论 文 摘 要

甲午战后三国干涉还辽事件的发生,极大地震动了正处于胜利喜悦中的日本各个阶层,更使日本统治者深刻地感到了在国际舞台上的孤立和无助。为摆脱这种困境,日本决定走对外结盟的道路。日英间的结盟是日本近代外交史上的一件大事,在日本侵华史上产生了极坏的影响,因此很有必要加大对这一问题的研究力度。
日本作为一个东方小岛国的崛起极大地改变了远东地区的国际力量对比,甲午战争中庞大的清帝国败于这一东方小国的事实,更是震惊了西方列强。俄国、法国、德国为了各自的利益开始干涉战争的结局,最终迫使日本吐出了已经吞进嘴里的一块肥肉。同时,清政府在甲午战争中的惨败及《马关条约》的签订激起了西方列强瓜分中国的强烈欲望,而日本妄图借此时机占领厦门的企图再一次因西方列强的联合干涉而遭到破产,这一系列事件促使日本最终走上了对外结盟的道路。英国成为它可以选择的最佳对象。同时,面对俄国在远东地区咄咄逼人的扩张势头,为防止俄国势力侵入长江流域,保护英国的在华殖民权益,此时经济增长速度已大大减慢的英国也需要在远东寻找一个利益伙伴,刚刚崛起并在甲午战争中证实了自己实力的日本赢得了英国的极大好感。日英之间很快就在共同利害关系的基础上达成协议。为复仇同时也为了将三国干涉后大肆在朝鲜扩张的俄国势力赶出朝鲜,并强化日本在朝鲜的影响,同时向中国东北地区扩张,日本于1904年在中国领土上发动了对俄战争。在日本的盟国英国的支持下,日本战胜俄国,最终取得了对朝鲜的控制权,这就为今后日本向中国的侵略扩张打下了坚实的基础。对中国而言,日俄战争就是日俄两个以进行对外侵略扩张为生存基础的帝国主义国家掠夺和蹂躏中国人民,侵犯中国领土主权的侵略战争。战争中,中国东北的大片领土遭到无情地践踏,广大中国人民亡国奴般地被侮辱和屠杀。战争后期日英两国出于各自利益的需要又续签了日英同盟条约,这迫使俄国在《朴次茅斯和约》中承认了日本在朝鲜的“特殊利益”,同时俄国也被迫将在我国东北地区南部的侵略权益让给日本。日本在这场战争中不但直接掠夺了中国的富源,而且在没有中国政府出席的情况下又从俄国手里夺取了大量侵华权益,甚至在迫使清政府对这些侵略权益的转移进行追认时,日本又从无能的清统治者手里攫取了其他方面的特权。再次在对外战争中取得胜利的日本在日英同盟的保护伞下侵华气焰更加嚣张,这部分地引起了美国甚至英国对日本在华殖民政策特别是对中国东三省实行的排他性殖民政策的不满。为进一步扩大外交基础,并抵制美国资本向中国东三省的渗透和扩张,日本决定联俄制美,1907年日俄之间达成共识,签订了日俄协定及密约,加之英俄协约的签订改变了远东的国际形势。为适应这一变化,1911年日英同盟条约再次进行修改和续签。不久,中国爆发了辛亥革命,日本借机极力向中国南方扩展势力,这引起了英国的不满,同时在对待中国革命及政体问题上,日英之间也产生了分歧,日本妄图对中国先实行“分而治之”后进行全面控制的政策,而英国为了维护其在华经济利益力主维持中国的南北统一,日英间的分歧日渐增大。同时,第一次世界大战爆发后,日本以履行同盟义务为借口对德国宣战强占德属太平洋岛屿,出兵中国山东,并提出妄图灭亡中国的“二十一条”要求,这些强硬要求引起了中国人民及西方各国的极大反对,但最终日本还是变相地达到了它的大部分目的,确立了它在中国的绝对优势地位。一战后,各帝国主义国家又纷纷回到中国,要求恢复并进一步扩大在华侵略权益,这与已在中国形成独占地位的日本之间产生了极大矛盾。为避免再次战争的发生,缓和远东地区的矛盾,美国主持召开了华盛顿会议,其目的之一就是拆散即将到期的日英同盟。至此日英同盟结束了它二十年的历史,宣告终结。日本于十年后发动了大规模武装侵华战争,二十年后发动了针对美国的武装袭击。
日英同盟在它存续的二十年期间成为日本侵华的保护伞,但它也部分地限制了日本在华的大规模扩张活动,随日本实力的不断增强,既定的“大陆政策”要求日本按照自己的利益行事,日英同盟反而成了它推行大规模侵华政策的束缚,因此日英同盟的解体是历史发展的必然产物。史实证明,日英同盟解体也促使日本加大了武装侵华的步伐。



Abstract

All of the Japanese were shocked heavily when they heard that Japan had to return the Liaodong Peninsulas to the Qing government forced by Russia, France and German while they were being immersed in the victory of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895.The rulers of Japanese government felt lonely and helpless. To shake off this difficult situation, Japan decided to ally with some other countries. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was an important thing in the Japanese modern diplomatic history and it has much worse effect on the history of Sino-Japanese relationship. So we had enough reason to deepen the study of this question.
The abrupt rising of Japan greatly changed the balance of the international strength of the Far East Area. The fact that the Great Qing empire was defeated by the little island Japan shocked the western powers. Russia, France and German interfered the result of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 for their own interests. At last they forced Japan to abandon the Liaodong Peninsulas to China. At the same time, the failure of the Qing Dynasty and the signature of the Treaty of Shimonoseki stimulated the dismembering desire of the western powers for the weak Qing Dynasty. Japan wanted to capture Xiamen during the dismembering waves. But it failed at last because of the interruption of the powers. After a whole series of such kinds of things happened, Japan decided to ally with one or more of the powers. The Great Britain was one of the best countries which Japan could choose to ally with. At the same time, the development of English economy was decreasing, so it also needed a friendly country to protect its economic profits in the Far East Area and resist Russian from expanding to the Chinese South. The victory of the newly rising Japan in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 testified the Japanese strength and this won for Japan the good feeling of England. Quickly Japan and England reached agreement on the base of the same interests.
In order to avenge itself on the Russian interruption in the Japanese occupation of the Liaodong peninsulas, in order to push the Russian strength out of Korea and strengthen Japanese influence in Korea instead, and in order to expand Japanese influence into the Chinese northeast, in 1904, Japan launched the Russia-Japanese War on Chinese land. With the help of England, Japan won the War and Russia failed. Accordingly Japan had the Korean situation under its control. And this prepared the best chance for Japan to invade into China. The Russia-Japanese War was an aggressive war of the two imperialist countries that was launched by Japan and Russia which depended on aggression for other countries. The War enslaved Chinese people by force and invaded Chinese sacred land ownership seriously. In the War, the land of Chinese northeast area was wantonly trampled, and a vast majority of Chinese people were insulted and murdered. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was revised and resigned. Japanese victory in the Russia-Japanese War and the revision of the Alliance forced Russia to recognize that Japan owned “special interests” in Korea, and to transfer the possession of the aggressive interests in Chinese northeast to Japan. In this war, Japan not only captured Chinese resource but also attained a lot of interests from Russia in the absence of the Qing Government and so far as to seize many other privileges from the incompetent rulers of Qing Dynasty when Japan forced the Qing Government to subsequently confirm the fact that Japan had transferred the possession of Chinese northeast area from Russia. For more victory in the aggressive war and with the help of the protecting umbrella of the Anglo-Alliance, the desire of Japanese expanding into China was more rampant. This fact partly aroused the Powers’ public indignation and especially led America to protest that Japan had implemented the policy that wanted to push other countries’ capital out of Chinese northeast area. In order to enlarge the diplomatic base and resist the expanding desire of American capital into Chinese northeast area, Japan decided to ally with Russia to resist America side by side. Japan and Russia reached agreement and signed the Russia-Japanese Treaty and the secret treaty in 1907. These treaties and the Anglo-Russian Treaty changed the inter-national situation of the Far East Area. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance was revised once more in 1911 in order to meet the changed situation. Japan wanted to make use of the chance that the Revolution of 1911 broke out before long in China to expand its strength into the South China. This aroused England to protest. Japan disagreed with English attitude on the revolution and the system of China. In order to control China completely, Japan wanted to implement the dividing and ruling policy in China but England did its utmost to maintain Chinese unity so as to safeguard its economic profits in China. The difference between Japan and England enlarged more and more. At the beginning of the First World War, Japan declared war to German and soon after occupied Chinese Shandong by force and captured the Pacific Island that had belonged to German claiming to help its allied country-England. Before long Japan advanced the Twenty-one Demands to Chinese government that vainly attempted to conquer China. These strong and unreasonable demands led Chinese people and western powers to protest strongly, but Japan reached its aim in other way most partly at last so that Japan set up its absolutely dominant position in China during the First World War. After the First World War, the western imperialism countries came back to Chinese market and demanded to restore or even enlarge their privileges in China. These demands conflicted with Japan that had set up its superiority in China. In order to avoid war and alleviate the contradiction between Japan and the western powers, America convened the Washington Conference on which America would apart the Anglo-Japanese Alliance that was on the point of ending. So far the Alliance finished its twenty years’ history and declared its ending. Ten years later Japan launched invading war by force to China and attacked by force in surprise to America for avenging twenty years later.
The Anglo-Japanese Alliance had become the protecting umbrella for Japanese invading China during its existing and remaining period. But it also partly limited Japanese massive expanding in China following with its strengthening. Its Continental Policy asked Japan to act according to its own interests in China and then the Anglo-Japanese Alliance limited Japanese action instead. So the disintegration of the Alliance is the historic logical result.