日本人口问题与环境对策研究/

2019-04-12 03:43:10

environment 环境 environmental population Japan




论 文 摘 要

本文主要研究了日本在经济高速增长时期(1955—1975年)的人口与环境问题,介绍了人口与环境关系的相关理论背景,从人口与环境的关系出发,探讨了在人口的增长过程中,工业化和城市化进程的加快对环境带来的巨大压力,以及日本在解决环境问题方面的经验。
环境是指围绕着人类这一主体而存在的各种自然因素,以及影响人类生存和发展的各种社会因素的总称。在分析了环境与资源的关系以后,我们认为自然环境与自然资源实际上是一个事物的两个方面,因此本文中论述的环境问题既包括自然环境的污染问题也包括自然资源的耗竭问题。本文介绍了人口与环境关系理论的几个代表人物以及他们的理论。其中包括以罗马俱乐部为代表的“悲观论”和以西蒙为代表的“乐观论”。我们认为应该采取辩证的观点对待人口与环境问题。随着人类认识自然,改造自然能力的加强,面对日益增大的人口压力,我们要充分认识到环境问题的严峻,在促进经济增长的同时做好环境治理工作。
战后的日本人口在经历了“婴儿热”以后,实现了人口的快速增长。也就是在这一时期日本的人口与环境关系发生了重大的变化,不断增大的人口规模迫使资源的利用增加,由此带来了环境的破坏。凭借着充足的劳动力,日本在经济迅速发展的同时推动了工业化的进程,然而由于对环境问题的认识不够,工业废气、废弃物的排放量增加,环境的压力和负担开始增大。痛痛病、四日市哮喘病、水俣病和新泻水俣病,即所谓的“四大公害病”,可以说就是工业化进程中带来的负面影响。
经济的迅速发展同时也推动了日本城市化的进程。在日本人口迅速向城市聚集的时期,环境污染现象也开始向各大城市集中。由于城市中的基础设施尚未完备,再加上生产活动向城市的聚集,日本城市开始面临工业污染以及城市·生活型公害的问题。
面对上述问题,日本开始积极采取措施进行环境治理工作。主要表现在:建立较完善的法律体系,从法制上保障污染指数的降低;国民的环境保护意识强,积极参与环境保护活动;社会多方合作,共同致力于环境保护事业;积极推进有关环境问题的教育。现在的日本已经在环境治理方面取得了一定的成就,并积极投身于世界环境保护工作。
在建国以后,我国人口增长迅速。虽然现在人口的增长速度已经开始变缓,但是由于人口惯性的作用,在今后一段时期内我国人口仍然处于增长的态势。庞大的人口数量对资源环境造成了巨大的压力。目前我国采取粗放型的经济增长方式,经济增长的实现是以原材料和能源的消耗为代价的。随着工业化和城市化进程的推进,工业废气、废水、废弃物的排放,城市噪音、大气污染等问题开始引起人们的关注。通过对我国现状的分析,可以看到日本在经济高速发展时期所经历的人口和环境问题与我国有许多相似之处。因此,日本在环境治理中的经验对我们具有一定的借鉴意义。
针对我国目前所面临的环境问题,借鉴日本在环境治理中所取得的经验,为我国环境保护工作提出对策和建议。首先应该建立完善的环境保护法律体系,实现环境治理的规范化、法制化。其次要加强有关环境知识的教育、宣传工作,提高全民的环境保护和参与意识。第三要社会各方齐心协力,共同搞好环境治理工作。第四要加大环境保护投资力度,推进环境污染治理工作。







Abstract

This paper mainly studies the problem of environment and population during the economic high-speed increasing period (1955-1975) in Japan and introduces the related theoretical background of the relationship of population and environment, which is the starting point of this paper. It also discusses the great pressure brought to environment because of the increase of industrialization and urbanization in the process of population increase, and the successful experiences in solving the environmental problems in Japan, which provides worthwhile experiences in environmental harness in our country.
The environment mentioned in this paper refers to all the natural factors centering on the subject—human beings and all the social factors influencing the existence and development of human beings. After analyzing the relationship between environment and resource, we hold the idea that the natural environment and the natural resources are actually 2 aspects of one matter. Hence, the environmental problems in this paper include not only the pollution of natural environment but also the exhaustion of natural resources. This paper mainly mentions the representatives concerned with theories on relationship of population and environment, and introduces their theories in details, including the “pessimistic theory” of Roman Club and “optimistic theory” with representatives scientists such as Semon. Furthermore, it objectively proves the advantages and disadvantages of the two theories, and concludes that we should treat the problem of population and environment dialectically. With the improvement of human beings’ ability to perceive the nature and remake nature, we should fully recognize the severity of environmental problems and efficiently control the environment as well as further increase economy, while facing the increasing population pressure.
Because experiencing the “baby boom” after the WWII, the population in Japan has increased rapidly. That is to say, the population and environment changed a lot in this period. The greatly increasing population unavoidably brought the increase of resource utilization, which, hence, brought the damage to environment. By virtue of adequate labor force, Japan promoted the process of industrialization while developing the economy rapidly. However, the environmental waste gases and waste materials increased a lot, which brought striking pressure and load on environment. The so-called “four diseases caused by environmental pollution”, are the negative influence brought by the industrialization.
The rapid economic development simultaneously promoted the urbanization of Japan. When the Japan population was increasingly assembling to the urban areas, the environment population was also centering on big cities. Because of the incomplete infrastructure, as well as the gathering of product activities to urban areas, Japanese cities began to face the industrial pollution as well as urban living environmental pollution.
Confronted to the above-mentioned problems, Japan began to take active measures to harness the environment, which include the following: building up more perfect legal system, and legally guaranteeing the reduction of pollution indexes; enhancing the sense of environmental protection of the nation and encouraging the participation; and advancing the related education on environmental protection. Japan nowadays has achieved a lot in the harness of environment and joined in the global environmental protection.
After the foundation of new China, the population in China has increased rapidly. Although the increasing rate of population has slowed down, the population of our country will still remain in the tendency of increasing in the recent period because of the effect of population inertia. The large population has brought great pressure on resource environment. At present, China is developing economy extensively, and the realization of economic increase takes the price of consuming raw materials and energies. With the promotion of industrialization and urbanization, people are more and more concerned about such problems as the emission of industrial waste water, waste gases, waste materials, the urban noise, and the gas pollution. Through the analysis of our county’s status, we can realize the similarities between Japan and China on the problem of population and environment during the period of rapid economic development. Thus, the experiences of Japan in the harness of environment are worth our studying and referring.
In view of the environmental problems our country is facing. This paper put forward the suggestive measures to protect environments by virtue of Japanese environmental protection policies. Firstly, we should build up perfect legal system to protect environments, and realize the standardization and legalization of environmental harness. Secondly, we should strengthen the education and promote the nation’s sense of environmental protection and participation. Thirdly, we should increase the investment on environmental protection, and advance the control of environmental pollution. Fourthly, the whole society should make concerted efforts and harness the environment together.