论 文 摘 要
This paper mainly studies the problem of environment and population during the economic high-speed increasing period (1955-1975) in Japan and introduces the related theoretical background of the relationship of population and environment, which is the starting point of this paper. It also discusses the great pressure brought to environment because of the increase of industrialization and urbanization in the process of population increase, and the successful experiences in solving the environmental problems in Japan, which provides worthwhile experiences in environmental harness in our country.
The environment mentioned in this paper refers to all the natural factors centering on the subject—human beings and all the social factors influencing the existence and development of human beings. After analyzing the relationship between environment and resource, we hold the idea that the natural environment and the natural resources are actually 2 aspects of one matter. Hence, the environmental problems in this paper include not only the pollution of natural environment but also the exhaustion of natural resources. This paper mainly mentions the representatives concerned with theories on relationship of population and environment, and introduces their theories in details, including the “pessimistic theory” of Roman Club and “optimistic theory” with representatives scientists such as Semon. Furthermore, it objectively proves the advantages and disadvantages of the two theories, and concludes that we should treat the problem of population and environment dialectically. With the improvement of human beings’ ability to perceive the nature and remake nature, we should fully recognize the severity of environmental problems and efficiently control the environment as well as further increase economy, while facing the increasing population pressure.
Because experiencing the “baby boom” after the WWII, the population in Japan has increased rapidly. That is to say, the population and environment changed a lot in this period. The greatly increasing population unavoidably brought the increase of resource utilization, which, hence, brought the damage to environment. By virtue of adequate labor force, Japan promoted the process of industrialization while developing the economy rapidly. However, the environmental waste gases and waste materials increased a lot, which brought striking pressure and load on environment. The so-called “four diseases caused by environmental pollution”, are the negative influence brought by the industrialization.
The rapid economic development simultaneously promoted the urbanization of Japan. When the Japan population was increasingly assembling to the urban areas, the environment population was also centering on big cities. Because of the incomplete infrastructure, as well as the gathering of product activities to urban areas, Japanese cities began to face the industrial pollution as well as urban living environmental pollution.
Confronted to the above-mentioned problems, Japan began to take active measures to harness the environment, which include the following: building up more perfect legal system, and legally guaranteeing the reduction of pollution indexes; enhancing the sense of environmental protection of the nation and encouraging the participation; and advancing the related education on environmental protection. Japan nowadays has achieved a lot in the harness of environment and joined in the global environmental protection.
After the foundation of new China, the population in China has increased rapidly. Although the increasing rate of population has slowed down, the population of our country will still remain in the tendency of increasing in the recent period because of the effect of population inertia. The large population has brought great pressure on resource environment. At present, China is developing economy extensively, and the realization of economic increase takes the price of consuming raw materials and energies. With the promotion of industrialization and urbanization, people are more and more concerned about such problems as the emission of industrial waste water, waste gases, waste materials, the urban noise, and the gas pollution. Through the analysis of our county’s status, we can realize the similarities between Japan and China on the problem of population and environment during the period of rapid economic development. Thus, the experiences of Japan in the harness of environment are worth our studying and referring.
In view of the environmental problems our country is facing. This paper put forward the suggestive measures to protect environments by virtue of Japanese environmental protection policies. Firstly, we should build up perfect legal system to protect environments, and realize the standardization and legalization of environmental harness. Secondly, we should strengthen the education and promote the nation’s sense of environmental protection and participation. Thirdly, we should increase the investment on environmental protection, and advance the control of environmental pollution. Fourthly, the whole society should make concerted efforts and harness the environment together.