论段祺瑞的对日外交思想/

2019-04-10 17:15:17

Japan Qirui Duan 段祺瑞 warlords



中文摘要

1916—1920年皖系军阀控制下的北京政府,与日本的关系极其密切,堪称是近现代中日关系史上的一个“蜜月时期”。因此,作为皖系军阀首领,段祺瑞的对日外交思想,应是我们研究这段历史时的一个重点。本文在查阅大量史料并参考已有成果的基础上,通过对日皖结合的国际国内背景、日皖交往的一些具体情节、以及段祺瑞政府对日借款的过程和结果的仔细分析,先概括出段祺瑞对日外交的目标和策略,之后,根据这些目标和策略,对段祺瑞的对日外交思想进行综合评论。从而较为全面、深入地论述了段祺瑞的对日外交思想。
段祺瑞执掌北京政权时期,欧战正酣,英、法、俄、德等欧洲列强早已无暇东顾,美国随着时间的推移也日益把主要力量投入欧洲战场,这就使日本在远东的实力空前膨胀,俨然成为这一地区的霸主。从章宗祥、曹汝霖等人的记述,吴光新奉段之命对日本在华要人的游说,以及段本人的一些对日言论和交涉,可以看出,基于对当时这种国际形势的清醒认识,段祺瑞主张改变袁世凯时期远交近攻的对日策略,转而实行近交善邻之策,希望趁欧战之机通过日本协助提高中国的国际地位,并防止战后欧美势力卷土重来。
从国内来看,由于派系纷争、军阀割据,段祺瑞远不能号令一切。北京政府内,有国民党和黎元洪的遇事掣肘;北京政府外,又有西南军阀的割据和直系的觊觎。一向以袁世凯继承人自居的段祺瑞当然不甘心于这种局面的长期存在,于是他要借助日本当时在中国的强大势力,实现皖系对国内的统一。这种借外力以对付国内异己势力的想法,段祺瑞当然不便于公开宣示,但是从他在北京政府内驱逐黎元洪和国民党势力、对西南军阀进行武力讨伐、以及和直系的斗争这些过程中与日本的交往,我们不难得出这一结论。
因此,段祺瑞在对日外交中主要想达到两个目标:对外,使中国在国际上获得自立;对内,实现皖系对全国的统一。但需要注意的是,这两个目标在段祺瑞看来并不是并列的,是有先后缓急之分的。具体说来,就是段祺瑞认为只有先实现国内统一,才能谈及国际自强,因此,在对日外交中,他把实现国内目标放在首要位置,即依靠日本的支持,首先要实现的是皖系对全国的统一。段的这种思想,在他本人及其亲信人物的言论中、在他与日本交往的过程中,都可以得到充分印证。
为了实现上述目标,段祺瑞采取了多种策略。从与日本交往的总体过程来看,他主要是想以对日合作的诚意来取得日本的信任;从建立嫡系部队和对西南进行武力讨伐这些关键事件来看,他在必要时不惜以大量满足侵略要求来换取日本的支持;从张勋复辟事件和与冯国璋争夺的过程中,又可以看出他在适当时也利用列强间的对华争夺胁迫日本援助;从武力统一与日本的种种矛盾以及他对这一政策的始终坚持,则足以证明他在根本内政方针上不容日本左右。
段祺瑞希望趁一战之际通过联日使中国在国际上获得自立,这种愿望无疑是美好的,但是他把希望寄托在当时正在竭力谋求扩大对华侵略的日本身上,这无异于与虎谋皮;为了实现统一国内的目标,他不惜向日本出卖了大量的国家权利,可谓不择手段,但结果却得不偿失,招至全国人民的反对和欧美列强的敌视,加速了皖系势力的崩溃;但是段祺瑞先统一国内后言对外的观点本身,有一定道理,我们不应过于苛责。




Abstract

In 1916-1920, the Beijing Government under the control of Anhui’s warlords was close to Japan. It was a honeymoon period for the two countries. Duan Qirui, the leader of Anhui’s warlords, whose diplomatic thoughts on Japan is key to history studying. By consulting a number of historical documents, the thesis comprehensively researched on the background and the process of Anhui’s warlords-Japan contacts, on the loan from Japan, then summarized the objective and tactics of Duan Qirui’s diplomatic policy upon Japan. According to the objective and tactics, the author synthetically commented on Duan Qirui’s diplomatic thoughts on Japan and drew an all-round and objective conclusion.
At that time, the European countries were busy fighting. The European great powers, for example, Britain, French, Russia and Germany, had no time to care about the situation in China. American also threw itself into European war. So Japan, who was far from great powers’ war, reigned supreme in China. From Zhang Zongxiang and Cao Rulin’s record, from Wu Guangxin’s canvass to Japanese politician in China, also from Duan Qirui’s speech and action, we could see that upon the special international circumstance, Duan Qirui replaced Yuan Shikai’s old diplomatic policy upon Japan with his amicable one. He wanted to enhance Chinese international standing and prevent European and American great powers from coming back.
The domestic circumstance was also pressing. The country was in political strife, which kept Duan Qirui from doing as he please. In side the Beijing Government, Li Yuanhong and Guo Min Dang Party was not in harmony with Duan Qirui. Out side the Beijing Government, the South-west warlords became a local despot and the Zhi Li’s warlords was seriously imperiling Duan Qirui’s Government. Duan Qirui couldn’t stand such situation, he wanted to utilize Japan’s supreme power in China to realize his unifying dream. The thoughts of drawing support from Japan to eliminate dissidents was seen from his contacting with Japan when he drive Li Yuanhong and Guo Min Dang Party out of the Beijing Government, suppressed the South-west warlords, and fought with Zhi Li’s warlords.
So we could conclude that Duan Qirui wanted to reach two goals when contacting with Japan, one is to got independence in dealing with international affairs, the other is to unify the country. These goals of Duan Qirui were in order of priority: In Duan Qirui’s opinion, unifying the country is the premise factor, because only the country united, can it get high position in the world. So he first request Japan to help him unify the country. Such thought was showed in Duan Qirui and his trusted follower’s talk and contacting with Japan.
In order to realize his purpose, Duan Qirui adopted many tactics. When contacting with Japan, he showed his good faith of cooperating with Japan only to get Japan’s trust. When he established the troop under his direct control and suppressed the South-west warlords, he met Japan’s many requests only to gain Japanese support. Zhang Xun’s restoration and Duan Qirui-Feng Guozhang’s contention showed his tactics of utilizing great power’s scramble in China to force Japan “help” him. His thoughts of unifying the country by force and his contradiction with Japan proved that he dealt with domestic affairs without Japanese interference.
In the World War-Ⅰ, Duan Qirui wanted to ally with Japan to get independence. At that time, Japan was enlarging its aggression to China, so allying with Japan was a good but serious will. At the same time, in order to realize his domestic goal, Duan Qirui unscrupulously sell out much of country’s profit, this hasten the collapse of Anhui’s warlords ’ regime. To a certain extent, the thoughts of “first unify the country, then get international standing ” is reasonable, which should be adopted a correct attitude in studying Duan Qirui’s diplomatic thoughts on Japan.