结 束 语
Since the post war ensuing decades, the economic relationship between China and Japan recovered gradually and made great progress under the endeavour of both countries, seeing the development of economic relationship there exist some problems. It will advance the long-term and steady development of the economic relationship between the countries to solve the problems properly. In the relationship, the advantageous factors are the main stream, so there exists a bright future.
Part I The Development Process and Evaluation of the Economic Relationship between China and Japan
I. The folk trade in small scope
From 1950 to 1962 is the primary stage in the development of the economic relationship between China and Japan. Japan took the measures of blockade and embargo on our country, so the economic relationship is mainly in the folk in form of goods-to-goods.
II. Semi-official, semi-folk economic relationship
Before the formal recovery of the both countries relationship, that is from the end of 1962 to 1972, the development of the both countries economic relationship embodied the semi-official, semi-folk characteristics. At this stage, the main form of the both countries’ economic dealing is still commodities trade, but put a end to the primitive form of goods-to-goods, and entered the cash trading period. It is necessary for the recovery of the both countries’ relationship to exist the semi-official, semi-folk economic relationship.
III. The economic relationship in the normalization of the both countries’ relationship
In 1972, the both countries’ relationship was normalized. On the effect of the diplomatic relationship, the trading scale between the countries widened year by year. In 1973, the bilateral trading sum was 2.01 billion dollars, in 1978 it had up to 5.08 billion dollars. Moreover, the trading forms were gradually diversified, developing to a wider area. But, because the opening scale of the Japanese market is limited and China has not entered in the economic cooperation, for example, there were few investing activities.
IV. The economic relationship after the reforming-and-opening
China’s reforming-and-opening led the economic relationship between China and Japan into a new developing period. Following to the rapid increase of commodity trade and direct investment, the financial cooperation increased steadily. Since the reforming-and-opening, the developments of the both countries’ economic relationship have ensuing characteristics:
1. The import and export trading appears a new aspect.
In 1981, the trading amount between the countries exceeded 10 billion dollars which increased nearly 10% comparing to the last year, and was in the first place among China’s foreign trade. Since 1990s, the trading amount increased rapidly and Japan became China’s major trade partner, meanwhile, China became Japan’s second major trade partner following the U.S.. After 1987, the trade unbalance between Japan and China appeased gradually, there appears surplus and in our country’s trade to Japan. Among the exported-to-Japan commodities, the proportion of manufactured goods increased, and the main exportation changed from raw material to manufactured goods.
2. The direct investment to China increased rapidly
From 1986 to 1988, Japan’s investment to China keeps above 200 million dollars. Entering into 1990s, the investment of Japanese enterprises to China appears a new aspect with the characteristics of continuing and super-high speed. Especially in 1992, Japan-fund enterprises began to flow into China enormously which resulted in an upsurge in investment to china. Both the investing items and the agreed amounts or the practical investing amounts appear a tendency of increase year by year.
3. The financial exchange and cooperation between China and Japan got a rapid development.
Japanese banks have been building more and more agencies in China and Japan has become the right country that has built the most agencies in China among all the foreign banks. Meanwhile, our financial institutes also built distributaries in Japan. The cooperating relationship between Chinese and Japanese banks had developed into such a depth that both countries invested jointly to build financial institutes. This marked that the financial relationship between China and Japan also has made a great progress in many aspects, such as the bilateral relationship and multilateral international cooperation.
Part II The Main Problems in the Economic Relationship between China and Japan, and the Settlement
I The friction in trade
Because there exist differentia in trade counting principles, counting methods, counting scope and time between China and Japan, the respective counting result is always deficit existing in oneself. Furthermore, Japanese domestic market is colored by protectionism. When our trade merchants export to Japan, they generally feel that Japanese commodities, circulating tunnels are complicated, have more levels and last a longer process. Some commodities have to undergo several steps of wholesaling, so the circulating cost is greatly increased. In order to decrease the friction in trade and guarantee the smooth development of the bilateral trade, we could start with the ensuing three aspects to solve the problem.
Firstly, both sides should adjust the trade counting results to make the counting statistics reflect the real trade situation at a best point. Meanwhile, both sides should keep the long-term general balance in bilateral trade. Secondly, China should improve the trade grade in the trade to Japan. From now on, China’s exporting commodities should undergo a construction adjustment, increasing the exportation of high added-cost commodities. Lastly, the settlement of the problems in trade between China and Japan should be brought into the structure of the world Trade Organization. China and Japan should utilize the mechanism of WTO, settle the friction in trade efficiently to avoid the enlargement of the conflict in economic trade.
II The problems of direct investment
1. The amount of investment is relatively low.
2. The scale of investment is smaller and the technological content is lower.
3. The distribution of invested business exist many conflicts.
4. The investment is not continuous.
5. The investment is often short-term.
6. China’s investing circumstance remains more improvement.
For the problems in investing field, our country could settle them from the three ensuing aspects:
Firstly, our country should implement the collectivization strategy, to deal with the challenge of Japanese investors. With an actual strength of economy in large scale, secondly, we should introduce new technology, digest and create it and transform our enterprises into the front battlefield in the technological exploitation. Lastly, we should utilize the importation to widen the exportation and open up international operation way for our enterprises.
III The problems in financial cooperation
1. Japan gives the economic aid with political elements. 2. “The view of Chinese threat” makes the impact. 3. Japan has doubts about the financial market in China.
In order to promote the cooperation of funds between the two governments efficiently, the following countermeasures can be studied.
At first, Japan must eliminate the political factors existing in the economic relationship between the countries. Secondly, our government should strengthen the reform of the financial system to promote the cooperation of funds between the countries. At last, Japan must completely dispel the wrong view of “Chinese threat”. And Japan should develop the financial cooperation of two countries with sincere treatment.
Part III The Prospect Analysis of the Economic Relationship between China and Japan.
I The economic relationship between the countries will not be destroyed by the interference of political elements.
Political elements can’t resist the good developing trend of the economic relationship between the countries. Japan is short of resource, and has a small market. Japan can continue to keep and develop the position of powerful country in economy by regarding the economic cooperation as the target. In Japan, the main stream is to stand for developing the friendly relationship and enlarging the economic cooperation between China and Japan. The economy in China is after the one in Japan. China wants to develop the friendly economic relationship with Japan and get the support from Japan in the aspects of trade, investment and cooperation. To develop the economic relationship between China and Japan is not only for the need of both countries but also for the need of promoting the cooperation in the East Asia area.
II The trade potentiality between the countries is enormous.
For China, the foreign trade has become the main power for the continuous increase of national economy. Therefore, the hope of our government is to raise the amount of the trade with Japan. For Japan, China is always the important origin place of raw material and the market for selling their products. In the future, China will be on the more important position in the foreign trade of Japan.
III The direct investment between the countries will increase.
For China, the foundation of socialist market economy in China makes the economy connect with the one in the world and strengthen the capability of drawing the foreign investment. Our country is actively carrying out the market reform, and trying its best to eliminate the barrier of economic cooperation brought by the ideology.
For Japan, Japan accelerates the adjustment of economic structure and the step of shifting the industries abroad because of the revaluing of Japanese yen and the increasing of the cost in the labor market. The improvement of investment environment and the advantage of resource offer opportunities for Japanese businessmen.
IV There is a good developing prospect in the cooperation of funds between the countries.
Japan is a powerful country for its finance, and the biggest aid country for other countries in the world. In the future, the loan from Japanese government is still the emphatic part for China to utilize the foreign loan. At the present, our politics and economy develop steady; the export increases steady; the capability of earning foreign exchange is reinforced continuously; the reputation of paying back debt is good; the burden of debt is moderate; especially Japan is greatly absorbed by the potential enormous market in our country. All above is beneficial for China to make Japan enlarge the government loan to China.
In order to promote the economic relationship between China and Japan to a higher level, the two parties should obey the four basic principles of developing the relationship between China and Japan, and continuously strengthen the good political and diplomatic relationship between them. Both countries should cooperate sincerely and try their best together based on the spirits of utilizing the advantage of each other, replenishing and benefiting each other, and being stable for a long time. On the base of solving the problems existing in the economy field, both countries should continuously explore the potentiality and cooperate in the areas of trade, investment and finance in more extensive range.