1933~1937年宋哲元与日本/

2019-04-05 03:00:16

日本 Song Japan 冀察 宋哲元



宋哲元是国民党诸多派系将领之一,但由于其身处中日矛盾的最前沿即冀察平津地区,因而其在中日关系中的地位十分重要。1933~1937年宋哲元与日本的关系表现为明显的四个阶段性特征。
一、长城的英勇抗战和察哈尔的积极抵制
华北地区历来政情复杂,为各政治势力争夺的场所,日本向长城的推进更加剧了这一态势。宋哲元及其二十九军就产生于这种纷乱政局中。宋以中原大战的败军之将,为生存和发展苦心焦虑。在日军进逼长城的情形下,宋将斗争的矛头指向日本侵略,此时宋出于自发的民族意识率领二十九军进行了英勇的长城抗战,取得九一八以来北方战场之首次胜利。然而屈辱的《塘沽协定》却严重打击了宋的抗日热情,并限制了宋对日交涉中的地位。长城抗战后宋借抗日名将的声誉和调解蒋冯察哈尔抗日同盟军的契机执掌察哈尔,实力地位大大增强。但由于察哈尔处于日本内蒙谋略的前线省,日本视宋为障碍。宋在南京政府妥协退让的政策的制约下,只能屈服忍让,但仍进行了积极的抵制,因而与日摩擦、冲突不断。第二次张北事件后,随着华北整体形势的紧张,南京政府撤去宋哲元的察省主席职,以秦德纯暂时代理,签订《秦土协定》。使宋为谋新的出路而开始转变对日态度。
二、华北危机中附和日本以立足冀察
《秦土协定》、宋被撤职,是日本整个华北阴谋的一部分。日本逐步形成了华北分离的政策,步骤是首先赶走国民党中央势力,然后捧出傀儡实行日本操纵的自治,最后迫使南京政府承认日本在华北五省的“指导地位”。秦土、何梅协定即为达第一步目的,造成了华北的空虚状态,之后,日本、主要在关东军沈阳特务机关长土肥原贤二的策动下,以军事恐吓为后盾,在1935年下半年掀起了一场声势浩大的“华北自治”运动。在此期间,宋出于自身出路的考虑对日本的态度发生了急剧的转折,从历来的敌对、防范态度一转而为向日本表示“亲善”,附和日本的各种权益要求。但实际上宋有其坚持的底线:即不丧失国家根本主权的原则,无论如何“亲善”,当日本强力要求实行自治的最后时刻,宋就逃避推卸。同时,宋的对日“亲善”也是在不得已下对日本的一种应付的策略,宋的真正目的从小的方面说是能够立足,从大的方面看是要造成不同于日本傀儡自治的另一种形式的由自己掌握冀察实权的局面。
宋出自对南调的担忧决定留驻华北。但在日军的嚣张气焰下,必须得到日本的“谅解”;同时宋认为以表面亲善和空口承诺换取日本对由自己主政冀察的认同,只要掌握实权,以后在对日交涉中就可掌握主动。因此宋避开南京政府而和日本直接交涉,表面上和日本来往密切,使日本认为宋有利用的价值,并随着寻找傀儡工作的挫折而逐渐将自治的对象重点限为宋。宋日自治交涉经历了一波三折的过程。虽然形势极为紧张,但由于日本政府并未做好战争的决策,甚至关东军也未做好战争的准备而只将土肥原的活动看作是一种尝试手段,土肥原的自治策动更多地是其个人谋略,再由于蒋的态度转变的比较强硬,而且宋对日的表面亲善也只是应付欺骗,因而最后各方妥协,成立具有半独立性质的冀察政务委员会,宋达到了在危机中掌握冀察实权的目的。
三、主政冀察时表面亲善与圆滑应对
冀察政务委员会成立后,日本调整了对冀察的政策,采取不取其名而取其实的手段,强调避免急剧分离华北,不使用“自治”、“独立”的名义,而用经济提携、共同反共等逐步使冀察当局与之紧密结合,造成对冀察实质上的控制。宋哲元此时已成一方大员,握有冀察的根本大权,二十九军实力也大大增强,但在日本的威逼下,冀察仍然危机四伏。在这种环境下宋对日本的基本态度是“应付”,即“表面亲善、实际敷衍、决不妥协”。尽管如此,实际上宋则不得不作出一定程度的妥协,只是宋极力缩小其危害。总的来说,则坚持了维护根本主权的原则。
宋对日“圆滑应付”实际表现为:第一,羁縻笼络汉奸亲日派,把他们安置在政委会内但不给他们实权,冀察平津的主要首脑位置都掌握在二十九军诸将领手中。第二,敷衍推诿经济提携。最初宋对经济问题认识严重不足,让步较多。但宋逐渐认识到了问题的严重性,开始用敷衍拖延的方法抵制日本的要求,并采取措施尽量补救。第三,托辞抵制共同防共。对日本“共同防共”的政治军事意义宋有比较清醒的认识,因而没有妥协,以自有防共有余为辞拒绝了日本要求。第四,消极回避冀察自治。对日本时而进行的自治要求,宋要求日本以取消冀东伪政府为谈判条件进行推诿,当日本一再逼迫时宋就采取托病不见甚至暂离平津的方法拖延回避。
四、七七事变中谋和交涉与再起抗战
在宋对日曲折应付的过程中,宋也逐渐表现出维护主权的强硬化倾向,进行了一系列抵制日本、倾向南京的举动。与之相应的是对日妥协呈减弱的趋势。其直接原因是宋受到南京对日态度趋向强硬和国内团结对日形势的出现的激励;根本原因则是宋内心深处浓厚的民族感,这种情感虽然因局势的制约而很少表露,但一旦受到有利的刺激就会相当程度的体现出来。但是,宋又极其珍视来之不易的冀察权力和地位,因此总是极力避免和日本的大规模冲突,冀望日本不进一步扩大侵略要求而幻想维持“和平共处”的现状。而日本的目的绝不仅仅在于满足现状,宋的对日敷衍态度和强硬倾向使日本越来越不满,认为宋并无真正合作的诚意,因而发出“膺惩宋哲元”的呼声。日本在不断进行军事威胁的同时,更阴谋酝酿大规模的驱宋活动。宋的和平幻想决定了他在七七事变初期进行了积极谋和消极备战的行为。对蒋抗战决心的怀疑、日本打打停停的和谈烟雾等也使宋难下抵抗的决心。但宋之谋和并不代表投降,事实证明,无论日本如何拉拢胁迫,宋哲元终未叛国投敌,因此宋哲元抗日爱国的思想情感是不容怀疑的。正是宋的民族情感决定了宋最终重又走向抗战。
结束语:宋能在极端艰难险迫中,最终坚持民族大义,未使日本将华北作为第二东北的阴谋得逞,充分显示了其民族情感,其历史地位应当予以充分的肯定。同时也证明了,在民族危亡的时刻,团结抗战不仅是民族、也是地方派系自身的生存之道,这时派系利益必须服从民族利益。



How Song dealed with the contradiction under special environment had very crucial influence to the trend of relation between China and Japan.
A. War of Resistance Against Aggression at The Great Wall and Controlled Chahaer province and made friction with Japan
The grievous lesson of civil war made Song hate civil war and put the spearhead of struggle to the invasion of Japan. Since Song’s position was not in height right now, Song hadn’t the consideration of domain power and his national feelings were shown directly and vigorously to carry out vigorous resistance. However, Tang Gu Agreement hit Song’s enthusiasm seriously. With the reputation of hero and the opportunity of putting down the Chahaer Allied Forces Resisting Japan, Song was appointed as chairman of Chahaer province. This was important transition to Song from simple general to politician. But, Japan regarded Song as the obstacle to its strategy, and Song also resisted Janpanese plot actively, thus it was repeatedly raw to conflict. Under the Nanjing’s policy of the yielding and compromissing, Song could only submit to tolerate. After 2th Zhangbei incident, song was discharged Chairman.
B.changing srongly: confused attitude to Japan because of trying to keep a foothold in North China in the crisis of North China Autonomy
After Tang Gu Agreement, Japan formed the policy to split North China gradually. Qin-Tu Agrrement and He-Mei Agreement were to reach first step. The domain idea of local factions made Song decide to adjust the order of Chiang Kai-shek and used Fengtai Incident to enter BeiPing and TianJin suddenly. But Song had to cater to Japan if he wanted to keep a foothold. And Japan thought closely that Song have certain value. As the failure of seeking puppet work, it was Song to be the key autonomy object. Song was unsatisfacted on Nanjing with its yielding to Japan but giving pressure to inter. Athough Song’s national feeling made him hold the principle to defend the authority of Nanjing, Song didn’t resist Nanjing clearly but gain autonomous power using Janpanese autonomy pressure. Athough situation was very tense, because Japan government and Guan-Dong army hadn’t all prepared to war, and because Jiang’s attitude became strong and Song’s deceived atittude, finally the different aspects compromised to establish Ji-Cha Government Administration Committee which had half-independent quality.
C. When examing Heibei and Chahaer: smooth and evasive dealing with Japan
From the establishing of Committee, the basic attitude of Song to Japan was dealing. The friendly relation was just surface. First, mollificated traitor and pro-Japanese member. Song could not let them stir up trouble, thus put them in Committee but did not give them power. Second, complicately dealt with economic support. At first Song thougt economy were not serious and hoped to gain going up Janpanese political oppression with economic concession. But Song known the seriousness gradually and began to use the method of being perfunctory to delay and resist the requirement of Japan, and remedy as far as possible. Third, rejected common Defence to Communist Party with excuse. For the Janpanese political and military meaning of Common Defence to Communist Party. Song didn’t compromise with the excuse that he had enough power to do it himself. Fouth, tried best to evade autonomy. To the oppression of Janpanese wish Ji-Cha to make autonomy, Song required Japan to cancel fake easten Heibei government for condition. Under the Japanese forces day time, Song pleaded illness or leaved away so as not to meet Japanese.
D. At Lu Gou Bridge Incident: the failure of contending peace and been engaged in war again
On the influence of Chiang Kai-shek’s strong attitude, Song’s attitude also showed strong trend. And with the situation of national supporting Jiang to resist was clear gradually, Song also showed the trend to obey Nanjng gradually. Japan found out Song havn’t cooperative sincerity in essence. So Japan sent the voice of punishing Song. The incident occoured finally. The thought of avoiding war to sue for peace made Song plan for negotiation actively and prepare for war negatively. Another cause was Song’s inertia thought about Jiang’s compromise policy, and the Japanese negotiation of victimization also made Song make descision difficultly. But when peace was impossible, Song determinated to carry out self-defense war of resistance against aggression. Therefore Song’s patriotic ideological feelings wasn’t doubtable. The Song’s dark attitude to Japan was decided by the special state of Chiang Kai-shek’s ambiguous relation with Japan which didn’t allow Song to declare his real thought. The result of war eventually explains that factional benefit must obey national benefit at last.
Concluding remarks: Song Zhe Yuan could insist national principle eventually in extremely difficult risk, showed that Song’s historical position should be given correctly.