美国对中日第四次民间贸易的影响/The Influence of U.S.on the Fourth Sino-Japan

2019-03-27 15:26:52

China trade Japan states United



摘    要

    关于战后中日第四次“民间外交”(civilian trade)的问题,主要研究的是在美苏冷战大环境的影响下,美国笼络日本,尽量使其成为遏制共产主义的“桥头堡”的相关内容。日本为了自身利益追随美国进行了反华的外交行径。尤其在“岸信介”内阁上台之后,签订第四次中日民间贸易协定的过程中,在美国影响下第四次中日民间贸易协定签订的失败导致中日在之后几年内的往来陷入了真空期,日本也不得不暂时割舍中国大陆的市场,将其外交和贸易的重点转变为向东南亚寻找替代市场,美日的贸易关系成为战后日本的重点。中日之间的贸易也是在美国的阴影笼罩之下曲折向前发展的,这些是值得我们进一步去总结和思考的。事件本身参与了许多客观和复杂的国际政治因素,使战后中日之间的贸易发展呈现了扭曲的状态。

本文通过对美国外交文件的梳理,主要研究了在二战结束后中日之间的官方贸易中断,只能开通民间贸易大门的情况下,曲折地签订了前三次民间贸易协定后的第四次民间贸易协定,却在岸信介内阁上台后破产的事实。这其中美国的因素不容忽视。美国出于对于其整体亚洲政策的考虑,加之艾森豪威尔坚持“中国威胁论”的僵化思想,强调了在经济上遏制中国、孤立中国的政策。在看到了台湾反攻大陆无望之时,美国重新调整其亚洲政策的方向,改变了对日贸易的初衷,强调了日本、东南亚在其亚洲政策实行中的地位。美国对于亚洲政策的调整也直接牵动了亚洲整体贸易关系的转变。日中贸易也在第四次中日民间贸易协定失败之后,进入了真空状态。事件本身给我们提供了宝贵的经验,对于以后更好地处理中、日、美之间的三边外交和经济关系起到了警示的作用。



Abstract



The main research on the fourth post-war China and Japan "civilian trade" is under the environment impact of the U.S.-Soviet Cold War, the United States wins over Japan to make it become a "bridgehead" to contain communism. Japan, for its own interests, follows the United States to conduct anti-China diplomatic behavior. Especially after the "Nobusuke Kishi" cabinet office, in the affect of United States, the failure of the fourth China and Japan "civilian trade" directly leads to the contacts between China and Japan in the years following in the vacuum, Japan has to temporarily leave the Chinese mainland market, and the focus of its foreign trade shifts to Southeast Asia to search for alternative markets, the economic and trade relation between the U.S. and Japan becomes the focus of post-war Japan. Trade between China and Japan is in the shadow of tortuous development under the United States, which deserves summary and further consideration. Many objective and complex international political factors are involved in the incident itself, which makes the post-war development of trade between China and Japan show a distorted state.

This thesis does a major study on the fact that in the end of World War II, China and Japan open the door to civilian trade after the official trade interrupted, but the fourth civil Trade Agreement comes to bankrupt after Nobusuke Kishi Cabinet takes office. The United States factors can not be ignored. The United States considers its Asia policy, coupled with Eisenhower’s rigid thinking "China threat theory", emphasizes to curb China economically. Having seen Taiwan’s  counterattack against the mainland hopeless, the United States readjusts its Asia policy, highlights the status of Japan and Southeast Asia in the implementation of its Asia policy. American policy in Asia also directly affects the trade relations adjustment of the whole Asian. Japan-China trade enters into the vacuum after the fourth China-Japan civil Trade Agreement fails. Incident itself provids us with valuable experience, plays a warning role in better handling the trilateral diplomatic and economic relations between China, Japan, and U.S.