简析近代中国留日、留美学生差异以及影响(1900——1929)/A Study on the Differences and Influences betwee

2019-03-27 09:37:16

students Japan states United studying



1872年清政府派遣首批幼童赴美留学,这是中华民族不堪落后沉沦而奋起自强的先声之一,开创了近代中国留学运动之先河。此后,负笈海外者不绝于缕,留学热潮迭起,由此崛起了一支数逾万人的留学群体。“沧海横流,方显英雄本色”,在激荡变革的近代中国,留学生是知识分子中特殊的一群。他们站在时代前沿,既传承了古老的中华文化,又亲沐了西方文明的濡染,是中国近代化历程中的先导力量。

在这支留学大军中,留日、留美学生无论是人数还是影响,都远非其他留学群体可比。两个群体特点各异,在学习生活和归国影响方面均表现出明显的差异。本文将选取1900—1929年间的中国留日、留美学生进行群体差异比较,并探索分析其相关原因。

首先,比较留日、留美群体的留学生活。主要从留日、留美学生的学业成就(包括专业倾向和学业成就)及团体组织两方面进行比较分析。由此看出留日、留美群体在留学时表现的不同倾向,从而预示其归国后的主要影响必然不同。

其次,揭示留日、留美学生归国后主要影响的领域各不相同。留日学生回国后在军政两界的影响非常大,而留美生在科技学术界独领风骚。

再次,分析留日、留美学生在思想、文学、教育等相同领域里的不同特点。从中可见留日学生处处表现出有高涨的政治热情,而留美学生始终对科技学术有浓厚的兴趣。

最后分析影响留日、留美群体产生差异的主要因素。其中,对客观因素主要从清朝、民国政府的有关政策、美日两国对待中国学生的相关态度等方面进行分析。主观因素则选取具有代表性的人物,结合他们的言论来分析其群体特点。



In 1872 Qing government dispatched the young boys to study in the United States for the first time. It is one of the first sign that China can’t bear the backward and declined state but work hard for self-support, which leads the beginning of the modern overseas’ movement. After that, more and more people go to study abroad and the surging wave of studying abroad occurs constantly, which bring out an overseas group of over 10 thousand. “Seas in turbulence just show the true quality of heroes”. During the modern China that is full of rapid transformations, returned student is a special community among the Chinese intellectuals. Standing at the front position of epoch, they inherit the ancient traditional culture in China and bathe the civilization in the west. Thereby they become the leading force in Chinese modernization process.

In this overseas army, the number and the influence of the students both studying in Japan and the United States surpass that of the other overseas groups greatly. Having their own distinctive features, the two groups embody obvious differences in studying at abroad and effecting at home. This article chooses Chinese students both studying in Japan and studying in the United States from 1900-1929 to compare the differences between the two groups. After itemizing the differences, I will try to analyze the related reasons.

The first part compares the overseas lives between students studying in Japan and students studying in the United States. I compare and analyze them mainly from two aspects: their school work (major inclinations and achievements) and the students’ communities. From this we can see these two overseas groups embody different inclinations when studying abroad, which forecast the differences of their influences at home.

    The second part reveals that the main realm influenced by students studying in Japan is different from that of students studying in the United States. Students studying in Japan make influences in the realm of politics and army greatly; students studying in the United States are superior in the realm of science and academy.

   The third part analyzes the different features of students both studying in Japan and studying in the United States in ideology, literature and education. From this we can see students studying in Japan display high political enthusiasm in any aspect, however, students studying in the United States are always interested in science and academy.

   The last part demonstrates the main reasons which cause the differences between students studying in Japan and students studying in the United States. About the objective factors, I analyze the related policies of the Qing government and the Republic of China government, the related manners of America and Japan with Chinese students and so on. About subjective factors, through the speeches of some representative people I analyze the group features of students both studying in Japan and studying in the United States.