日本对中东铁路的攫取/The Grabbing of China-Eastern Railway by Japan (1904-1935)

2019-03-27 04:15:06

The railway China Japan 中东



中东铁路是俄国根据1896年《中俄密约》与1898年签订的《旅大租地条约》两个不平等条约,在中国东北强行修筑的铁路线。其中从满洲里到绥芬河是中东铁路的干线,从哈尔滨到旅大是中东铁路的支线。1904—1905年爆发了日俄战争,俄国战败,日本取得了中东铁路长春至旅大支线。十月革命爆发后,中东铁路进入美日共管局面。1920年初,协约国武装干涉西伯利亚失败,各国军队相继撤出西伯利亚,日本经过种种努力,没有攫取中东铁路的侵略目的。“九•一八”事变爆发后,日本开始不断骚扰和破坏中东铁路。1935年,日本低价收购了中东铁路,实现了多年的侵略梦想。

本文从两个方面对日本攫取中东铁路进行了探讨和评价:

首先,日本攫取中东铁路是日本侵略中国东北的必要环节,是日本推行大陆政策的结果,当然这与近代中国政府软弱外交息息相关。沙俄和苏俄政府对华政策的演变直接影响了日本攫取中东铁路的进程。各帝国主义国家关系的演变成为日本攫取中东铁路的国际大背景。

第二,日本对中东铁路的攫取,实现了日本占领中国东北的侵略目标。中国东北逐渐沦为了日本的殖民地。同时,日本对中东铁路的攫取为日本侵略中国奠定了坚实的基础,加快了日本侵华的步伐。



The China-Eastern Railway was built under two unequal treaties—Sino-Russian Secret Treaty signed in 1896 and The Treaty on Rent Lushundairen signed in 1898. Along the railway, the part from Manchuria to Suifen River is the major line, and the part from Haerbin to Lushundairen is the branch. After the failure of Russian in the war between Russian and Japan during 1904-1905, Japan got control of the part from Changchun to Lushundairen. After the October Revolution, The China- Eastern Railway was under the control of America and Japan. In 1920, with the failure of the Alliance Country in interfering Siberia, their troops withdrew from that place. Although taking various measures, Japan didn’t realize his ambition of invading The China–Eastern Railway. After the incident of 9.18, Japan began to disturb and destroy The China-Eastern Railway again. In 1935, Japan purchased the railway at a very low price, thus realizing his invading dream at last. 

This thesis comments 0n Japan’s grabbing of the China-eastern Railway from two perspectives: 

Firstly, Japan grabbed The China-Eastern Railway because it’s the vital part of his invading of the whole Northeastern China. It’s the result of his invading Continent policy. Of course, the weak Chinese government at that time is also part of the reason. The Russian and the later Soviet Union’s policy towards China have directive influence on the process of Japan’s grabbing of the railway, with the complex interrelationship of other imperialist countries as the international background of it.

Secondly, the successful grabbing of China-Eastern Railway facilitated Japan’s invasion of the whole Northeastern China. At the same time, the grabbing also lay solid foundation for his invasion of the whole China.