“吉田书简”与战后初期日本对华政策/“The Yoshida Letter” and Japans Policy to China in the Early S

2019-03-17 06:36:29

China Letter Japan Yoshida 书简



二战结束后到20世纪70年代,中日两国外交关系基本处于“冰封”状态。中日关系中这种局面的形成,“吉田书简”起着重要影响。“吉田书简”从酝酿到出笼,交织着错综复杂的国际矛盾。而今,这一重要历史事件成为史学界研究的热点,也存在着很大的意见分歧。关于“吉田书简”在当今史学界争论的焦点,主要是围绕该书简究竟是美国“外压产物”,还是吉田内阁的“自由选择”。

在东亚冷战形势下,美国改变了对日政策,由战后初期对日军事管制、政治改革和经济改造向扶植重建方向发展。在旧金山媾和中有关日本选择哪一方中国代表作为媾和对象,美英之间存在着意见分歧。美国坚持主张日本选择台湾的国民党政权,英国主张日本选择中华人民共和国。面对来自美英不同的压力,吉田内阁为了使日本早日实现媾和和战后重建,最终以“吉田书简”的形式把“台湾政权”作为媾和对象。日本政府在对华政策上的这一重要决定,对战后初期中日关系的发展产生深刻影响。

那么,“吉田书简”究竟是美国压力的产物,还是日本自己的选择呢?随着时代的发展和国际形势的变化,又将如何对这一重要历史事件进行重新认识呢?笔者认为,“吉田书简”并非是完全屈从于美国“外压”的产物,而是面对美国的压力,吉田内阁权衡当时国内外环境做出的选择,这种选择也是一种对华政策留有“余地”的选择。另外,对“吉田书简”进行研究时,既要充分考虑当时国际环境的影响,也不能忽视“吉田书简”与战后初期日本自身对华政策的构想。 

所以,将“吉田书简”放到战后初期日本对华政策中去研究,进一步探讨“吉田书简”在对华政策上的余味,是本文重点之所在。只有这样,才可以走出绕理论的圈子,实现真正的研究目的,也能更好地认识“吉田书简”对战后初期日本对华政策的规制作用,从而更全面地探讨战后初期日本对华政策的实质。



From the end of the World War II to 1970's, the diplomacy between China and Japan stood in “the iced seal” state basically. In the formation of the situation of the Sino-Japan relations, “the Yoshida Letter” played an important role. From the conception to appearance of “the Yoshida Letter”, there were complex international contradictions. At the present time, the important history event has become the historiography field's hot topic, but there exists a very big gap of different opinions. The focus of disputes of the historiography field about “the Yoshida Letter” nowadays is mainly around whether the Letter is the outcome of America’s “outside press” or Yoshida cabinet’s “free choice”.

Under the situation of Cold War of East Asia, the United States changed its policy to Japan, from the military control, political reform and the economy reformations in the early stage of post-war to the direction of forstering and rebuilding. There were different opiniions between the United States and England about which part of China that Japan would choose for representation as pacification object in San Francisco pacification.The United States insisted strongly Japan choose Taiwan Kuomintang regime, while England agreed to choose the People's Republic of China. Facing different presses coming from the United States and England, the Yoshida cabinet made “Taiwan regime” the pacification object in the form of “the Yoshida Letter” in the end, in order to make Japan carry out negotiation for peace soon and post-war reconstruction. The Japanese government’s important decision of the policy to China had deep influence on the development of the Sino-Japan relations in the early stage of post-war.

So, is “the Yoshida Letter” the outcome of the America’s pressure or the Japan’s own choice? Along with the development of the times and the variety of the international situations, how shall we re-understand the history event? The writer’s opinion is that “the Yoshida Letter” is not the complete outcome of the America’s “outside press”, but the choice of Yoshida cabinet after making tradeoff of domestic and abroad environment. This kind of choice was also a kind of choice that the policy to China which stayed to have “leeway”. Moreover, in the research of “the Yoshida Letter”, we should not only consider sufficiently the influence of the international environment at that time, but also cannot neglect “the Yoshida Letter” and the conception of Japan’s own policy to China in the early stage of post-war.

Therefore, the keystone of the thesis is to study “the Yoshida Letter” in Japan’s policy to China in the early stage of post-war, discuss further “the Yoshida Letter’s” aftertaste of the policy to China. So and so only, we just can come out of the ring of theories, achieve the real research purpose, also can understand “the Yoshida Letter’s” restrictions to Japan’s policy to China in the early stage of post-war, consequently, we can inquire into the essence Japan’s policy to China completely in the early stage of post-war.