碰撞与选择——从德川幕府的文化政策看异质文明在日本的遭遇/Collision and Choice--Look on the encounter of hete

2019-03-17 01:04:13

culture Japan 文明 Tokugawa 德川



东西方文明的碰撞是文明潮流运动的普遍现象,但碰撞的结果却大相径庭,究其缘由,根在选择。

    本篇论文秉承论从史出的原则,试图探索文明遭遇碰撞后,近世日本做出的选择对其近代化所起到的作用。

    文章从日欧文明的最初接触写起,终笔于明治初年,着重分析了德川时期(日本由封建社会向资本主义社会过渡的时期,即近世时期)面对强势文明的冲击,五位将军(第1代将军德川家康、第3代将军德川家光、第8代将军德川吉宗、第11代将军德川家齐、第13代将军德川家定)做出的不同选择。他们所实行的文化政策就像分水岭,把日本对西洋文明的态度分成了前后承起的几个阶段。文化政策几经变化的过程,实际上也就是日本对西洋文明选择的过程,从物质层面的接受到精神层面的吸收经历了长达三百余年的时间。在此期间,西方文明这种活泼跳跃的因子在日本不断成长起来,最终撞击到幕藩体制的本质上,对幕藩体制的瓦解起到了催化剂的作用。

    笔者通过对德川幕府文化政策的剖析,得出这样一个结论:异质文明遭遇碰撞后,积极的因素不是单方面地存在于文明的输出体中,文明的受体也有其主动的选择性——或抵触或认同,或排斥或吸收,或打击或利用,在选择中不断寻找着与异质文明的契合点,并调整方向,进而完成自身文明的发展。正是这种选择力的成功启动,成为日本完成近代转型的主要动因。



The collision of Eastern and Western civilization is very common in the movement of the civilization tide,but the result is widely divergent,the basic reason of which is choice. 

    The thesis tries to explore the role of Japan’s selectivity of the Edo period to modernization after the collision of culture based on the principle that the discussions depend on the history.

    It is written from the first contact of the culture between Japan and Europe to the early years of Meiji,and stresses to analyze 5 Shoguns’ different choice in Tokugawa age (is the transitional period of Japan from mid-ages to modern times, also be called Japanese Modern Age).The 5 Shoguns’ cultural policies are just as watershed and divide the Japan’s attitude to western civilization into 5 successive phases.In fact, the process of the change of cultural policy is the process of Japan’s choice to Western culture,which takes more than 300 years.During the process,the Western civilization as a vivid gene grows up,finally bumps the essence of Tokugawa Regime and it can be regard as a activator to the collapse of Tokugawa Regime.

    From the cultural policies of Tokugawa Bakufu,the writer draws a conclusion:when heterogeneous civilizations collide,active factor is not only in the exporter of culture,but in the importer of culture,and the importer of culture has its active selectivity. The successful startup of the selectivity becomes the main reason to Japan’s neoteric transition.