外文题名 An overall study of Japan's external strategy and foreign policies after World War Ⅱ
关键词日本外交政策 日本对外战略 中日关系
An Overall Study of Japan's External Strategy and
Foreign Policies after World WarⅡ
Abstract The dissertation presented in PartsⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ has made an inquiry into the historical
process of the formulation,development and change of the Japan's external strategy and foreign
policies from the end of World WarⅡ to the early〓century on purpose for a theoretical
summarization of the characteristics and regular patterns of the Japanese post-war external
strategy and foreign policies in conjunction with an accurate and reasonable evaluation of the
forthcoming tendency so that we are able to keep sober-minded about Japan in any circumstances
and to provide theoretical assistance to the research on and formulation of our foreign policies
In Part Ⅰ,the author looks back on the Japanese pre-war external strategy and foreign policiesand analyses the premise and restraints for the formulation thereof.It is pointed out in the paperthat the run of the Japanese pre-war external strategy indicates the decisive role of the externalstrategy and foreign policies which mean the rise and decline of Japan.Japan's choice to"ridAsia and join Europe"and its strategy of global expansion enable Japan to follow in the footstepsof Europe and America to embark on the capitalist road as an Asian country,and over sustainedexternal expansion,Japan once realizes its dream of empire.However,the diverse evil and unjustconducts of Japan results in the unavoidable destiny of being defeated and destroyed.
Part Ⅱ treats of the process of development and change of Japan's external strategy andforeign policies in the cold-war period.From the theoretical point of view,the author explains thebasis,decision-making process and features on the part of its external strategy and foreign policiesand clarifies the viewpoint that Japan merely"takes the head of America's horse as guide"orin other words Japan just follows the lead of the United States and Japan does not have anyindependent external strategy and concept.The research and analysis in the paper denotes that inover half a century after the War the objective of Japan's external strategy has always been clear-cut.In the period of American occupation,since it is out of the question for Japan to achieve theobjective to"rise in the international community"for the time being,it sets forth the externalstrategy of undergoing all hardships and relying on America for survival and takes the road ofmaking peace unilaterally and getting allied with America in order for the country's security,rejuvenation and development.In the 1950's,after it resumes its sovereignty,Japan establishesthe external strategy of returning to international stage,restores the Japan-USSR relations and thuspaves the road for it to join the United Nations and return to the international community.At thesame time,Japan evades the risk of getting involved in the cold-war confrontation too early andearns a favorable international environment for Japan to develop its national economy.In the1960's,the focal point of Japan's external strategy turns to external expansion by reliance oneconomy and with economy as backup force and pursues pro-active economic diplomacy.In the1970's,the Japan's external strategy changes to active from passive and changes to the effortto reinforce independent diplomacy and vie for the boss role on the international stage from just inthe service of the economic power.In the 1980's,the Japan's external strategy evolves towardthe objective of political power and"international country"in the orientation of playing aguiding role in the establishment of new international order.
In Part Ⅲ of the dissertation,the author expounds on the development of Japan's externalstrategy after the cold war,characterized for its efforts to strive for the position to dominate theworld and the status to say the last word in the world affairs;become a permanent member of theSecurity Council through the specific efforts;share power and responsibility with the UnitedStates and attempt an equal and a new-type partnership with the United States and Europe byactive diplomacy;play a dominating role in the Asia-Pacific region and gain more say in the Asianaffairs so as for transition to the world stage;augment military build-up,force through therestriction by Article 29 of the Constitution and dispatch its Self-Defense Force for overseasmissions;and meddle actively in the affairs of Taiwan,China and pass the newly revisedGuideline for US-Japan Defense Cooperation and bills concerning"the areas surroundingJapan"on purpose of spearheading against China.Over the past half a century,the objective ofJapan's external strategy is the sustained pursuance after the superpower position.At present,theeconomic scale of Japan has become so enormous and its desire for a political superpower status isso eager that it gets under way to revise the previous versions of its national strategy just after thestart of the new century.This will produce direct impact to the surrounding neighboring countries.To our country,it is significant that we grasp in accuracy the tendency of development of Japan'sexternal strategy.
In the concluding part of the dissertation,the author has made a thorough analysis and a deepstudy of the nature of Japan's external strategy and holds that Japan,featured in externalexpansion ever after the Meiji Reform,is a country that lacks sense of morality and justice.Beforethe War,Japan runs after Europe and the United States and carries out the policy of colonialistexpansion that results in disastrous calamity to the Asian people including the Chinese people.After the War,Japan is always ready to take it as the final aim of its diplomacy to gain as muchbenefit as possible and thus becomes reputed as"economic animal".As a result,Japan leaves tothe international community an image of an imperialist that concentrates solely on the investmentand recovery of profits and swallows the assets of other countries.Later on,if Japan continues torun after its own benefits excessively and neglects the benefits of the parties concerned in its effortto develop economic relations with other countries,the economic frictions will surely be worsenedand redoubled.Japan has presently changed to concurrent focus on politics and economy fromjust economy-centered type and is developing toward to politics-centered type and views as itsobjective to become not only an economic power but a political power and a military power.In thenew century,whether Japan becomes a political power which has international political influencethat cannot be neglected depends on whether it can(1)shatter the tackles of historical problems;(2)change its subordination to the United States;(3)make any contributions to the solution ofworld poverty and environmental problems;and(4)seek confidence from sounding countriesbefore playing roles of a power country.In the years to come,Japan will still regard the WestPacific as its key geographical locality for its external expansion.However,at the same time,theUnited States is always ready to materialize interventions worldwide.The scrambling for benefitsbetween Japan and the United States in the West Pacific is bound to head for aggravation.In theconcluding part,the author points out the causes for the development of Japan's out-and-outnationalist trend of thought and Japan's rejection to acknowledge thoroughly its War crimes,i.e.,incomplete settlement of the accounts of the Japanese militarism after the War;aggravation of thetendency of political conservatization;beginning of chauvinism and nationalism;and existentsocial basis of right-wing force.The surrounding countries should be highly on the alert againstthe phenomenon.
In the concluding remarks,the author gives points of view about what type of newinternational order should be established at present.Comrade Deng Xiao-ping drafts the overallblueprint of"new international order"and put forward the well-known statement that peace anddevelopment continue to be two major themes of the contemporary world.This is the principaltendency of the world development.However,Japan proposes that"the United States,Japan andEurope be leading forces to form,new world order".Japan seeks to be one polarity in thestrategic pattern of the future world and play a leading role in process of establishing new worldorder.
In the concluding remarks,the author makes an analysis of and looks forward to Japan'sexternal strategy in the〓century and points out that Japan has badly hurt the feelings of thepeoples of the world countries and Asian countries in particular since the Japanese Governmentdoes not face up to and engage its history of aggression in introspection.This will inflict adverseeffect to Japan's effort to play political role in the international affairs.Though powerful,theJapanese economy still sees fragility here and there.In the long run,the restriction by theinternational economy of the Japanese economy can never be belittled.
In the concluding part,the author offers some personal points of view pertaining to China'sforeign policies toward Japan.First,we are supposed to continue to advance the Sino-Japanesefriendly and cooperative relations.The geographical position means that China and Japan are andwill be neighbors generation after generation.Premier Zhou Enlai once put it,"If Sino-Japaneserelations cease to develop,there is no hope for peace in Asia.Secondly,we should have an evenwider outlook at the Sino-Japanese relations from a higher strategic dimension.Thirdly,we hadbetter to work harder in the aspects as follows:(1)to develop the friendly and cooperativerelations between the peoples of our two countries;(2)to use history as mirror;and(3)to developSino-Japanese relations,we should base our effort on the reality with our vision on the future.Finally,we should have a foothold in the long-term economic cooperative relationship.After all,peace,development,friendship and cooperation should well be the top melody of the Sino-Japanese relations in the〓century.We have good reasons to advance in this direction.