战后日本对外战略与外交政策研究

2019-02-21 16:43:39

strategy 日本 In Japan External









中文题名战后日本对外战略与外交政策研究

 





副题名 





外文题名 An overall study of Japan's external strategy and foreign policies after World War Ⅱ 





论文作者张雅丽   





导师张月明教授   





学科专业科学社会主义与国际共产主义运动   





研究领域\研究方向世界政治经济与国际关系   





学位级别博士 





学位授予单位华东师范大学   





学位授予日期2001   





论文页码总数181页   





关键词日本外交政策  日本对外战略  中日关系   





馆藏号BSLW

/2001

/D831.3

/11 





【中文摘要】

 论文提要
   本论文研究了第二次世界大战后到21世纪初日本对外战略和外交政策的制定、发展和变化的历史过程,旨在从整体上对战后日本对外战略和外交政策的特点和规律进行理论性总结,并对其未来的发展趋势做出较为准确与合理的分析判断。使我们对日本保持清醒的认识,并为我国对日政策的研究制定提供理论服务。
   本论文分上、中、下三篇。
   “上篇”对战前日本对外战略和外交政策做了历史的回顾,并从理论上分析了日本制定对外战略的前提及制约因素。指出:战前日本对外战略的走向表明,其对外战略与外交政策的正确与否,在很大程度上决定着日本的兴衰。其“脱亚入欧”、面向世界的对外扩张战略,使日本作为亚洲国家,率先效仿欧美踏上了资本主义道路,并通过无休止的对外扩张,一度圆了帝国梦。但是,多行不义却导致了它最终的败亡。
   “中篇”论述了冷战时期日本对外战略和外交政策的发展变化过程,并从理论上阐述了其对外战略和外交政策制定的依据、决定过程及特征,澄清了认为战后日本以美国的马首是瞻,没有自主的对外战略和理念的错误看法。本论文的研究分析表明,战后半个多世纪,日本的对外战略目标一直非常明确。在美国占领时期,日本由于在“国际社会崛起”的目标暂时无法实现,确立了卧薪尝胆,依美图存的对外战略,走上了片面媾和,与美国结盟的道路,以求得国家的安全、复兴和发展。50年代,日本恢复主权后,确立了重返国际舞台的对外战略,恢复了日苏关系,为自己加入联合国、重返国际社会铺平了道路。同时,也避免了过早地介入冷战对峙的风险,为本国的经济发展争取了有利的国际环境。60年代,日本对外战略的重点转向依靠经济、以经济实力为后盾向外扩张,积极推行经济外交。70年代,其对外战略从消极被动变为积极主动,从服务于经济大国变为加强自主外交、争当国际舞台上的主角。80年代,日本对外战略的目标发展为争当政治大国,做“国际国家”,以图在建立国际新秩序中起主导作用。
   “下篇”论述了冷战结束后日本对外战略的发展,即寻求主导世界的位置,争取在世界上拥有支配性的地位。其具体作法是:争取出任安理会常任理事国;通过积极主动的外交,与美国分享权力、分担责任,企图确立与美国、欧洲平起平坐的新型伙伴关系;在亚太地区发挥主导作用,增大在亚洲事务中的发言权,以便向世界舞台过渡;增强军事实力,强行突破宪法第九条的束缚,把自卫队派往海外;积极插手中国台湾事务,通过了旨在防范中国的《新日美防卫合作指针》和“周边事态”相关法案等等。半个多世纪以来日本对外战略的目标就是对大国地位的不懈追求。目前日本的经济规模已经变得如此庞大,其政治大国愿望已是如此迫切,以至于它在新世纪已经开始着手对以往的国家战略进行修正,这势必对其周边邻国产生直接影响。对我国来说,必须准确把握日本对外战略的动向及发展趋势。
   论文的“结语”部分对日本对外战略的本质进行了分析研究,认为明治维新后日本以向外扩张为特征,是一个缺乏“道义”感的国家。战前它追随欧美,推行殖民主义的扩张政策,给中国人民及亚洲人民带来了沉重的灾难。战后它时刻把获取更多利益作为其外交的最终目的,以至于被视为“经济动物”,给国际社会留下了只专心于投资与回收利润、吞噬它国资产的帝国主义形象。今后日本在与其它国家发展经济关系时,如果继续过分追求自己的利益,而忽视对方的利益,经济摩擦将会进一步加剧。日本目前已经完成了从经济中心型向政治、经济并举型转变,并向政治中心型发展,把做经济大国、政治大国、军事大国,最终能拥有主导、支配世界的地位作为追求的目标。新世纪,日本是否能成为具有不容忽视的国际政治影响力的国家,将取决于(1)能否彻底摆脱历史问题的束缚;(2)能否改变对美国的从属地位;(3)在解决贫困和环境问题方面能否真正为世界做贡献;(4)能否取得周边国家的信任……今后,日本仍会把西太平洋作为其对外扩张的重点地区。而美国仍将在全球范围保持介入的状态,日美在西太平洋地区的利益争夺将会加剧。
   “结语”还分析了日本极端民族主义思潮的发展及日本拒不彻底承认战争罪行的原因在于:战后对日本军国主义的清算极不彻底;政治保守化趋势加剧;“大国主义”及极端民族主义思潮抬头;右翼势力仍有相当社会基础。对此,周边各国应保持足够的警惕。
   “结语”探讨了目前应当建立什么样的国际新秩序问题。邓小平绘制了“国际新秩序”的整体蓝图,提出“和平与发展”是当代世界两大主题的著名论断,这是世界发展的主要趋势。而日本则提出“必须以美、日、欧三极为主导,形成世界新秩序”,日本要作为支撑未来世界战略格局中的一极,企图在建立世界新秩序的过程中发挥领导作用。
   “结语”对21世纪日本对外战略作出了分析与展望。指出:由于日本不能正视和反省其侵略历史,严重地伤害了世界各国尤其是亚洲国家人民的感情,因而也必然影响日本在国际上发挥政治作用。日本经济实力虽然非常强大,但也存在着明显的脆弱性,从长远来看,世界经济对它的制约尤其不可忽视。
   “结语”对未来中国对日政策的选择谈了一些个人看法。第一,继续把中日友好合作关系推向前进。地理位置决定了中日两国必将世世代代做邻居。周恩来曾经指出:“如果中日关系不发展,那么亚洲和平就没有希望。”第二,要以更宽广的眼界和更高的战略角度看待中日关系。第三,发展中日关系要着重在以下几个方面下功夫:(1)发展两国人民的友好合作关系。(2)必须以史为鉴。(3)发展中日友好关系,既要立足于现实,又要着眼于未来。第四、立足于长远的经济合作关系。
   总之,和平、友好、发展、合作应是21世纪中日关系的主旋律,应当朝着这一方向努力。











【外文摘要】

 An Overall Study of Japan's External Strategy and
Foreign Policies after World WarⅡ
Abstract The dissertation presented in PartsⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ has made an inquiry into the historical
process of the formulation,development and change of the Japan's external strategy and foreign
policies from the end of World WarⅡ to the early〓century on purpose for a theoretical
summarization of the characteristics and regular patterns of the Japanese post-war external
strategy and foreign policies in conjunction with an accurate and reasonable evaluation of the
forthcoming tendency so that we are able to keep sober-minded about Japan in any circumstances
and to provide theoretical assistance to the research on and formulation of our foreign policies
toward Japan.
   In Part Ⅰ,the author looks back on the Japanese pre-war external strategy and foreign policiesand analyses the premise and restraints for the formulation thereof.It is pointed out in the paperthat the run of the Japanese pre-war external strategy indicates the decisive role of the externalstrategy and foreign policies which mean the rise and decline of Japan.Japan's choice to"ridAsia and join Europe"and its strategy of global expansion enable Japan to follow in the footstepsof Europe and America to embark on the capitalist road as an Asian country,and over sustainedexternal expansion,Japan once realizes its dream of empire.However,the diverse evil and unjustconducts of Japan results in the unavoidable destiny of being defeated and destroyed.
Part Ⅱ treats of the process of development and change of Japan's external strategy andforeign policies in the cold-war period.From the theoretical point of view,the author explains thebasis,decision-making process and features on the part of its external strategy and foreign policiesand clarifies the viewpoint that Japan merely"takes the head of America's horse as guide"orin other words Japan just follows the lead of the United States and Japan does not have anyindependent external strategy and concept.The research and analysis in the paper denotes that inover half a century after the War the objective of Japan's external strategy has always been clear-cut.In the period of American occupation,since it is out of the question for Japan to achieve theobjective to"rise in the international community"for the time being,it sets forth the externalstrategy of undergoing all hardships and relying on America for survival and takes the road ofmaking peace unilaterally and getting allied with America in order for the country's security,rejuvenation and development.In the 1950's,after it resumes its sovereignty,Japan establishesthe external strategy of returning to international stage,restores the Japan-USSR relations and thuspaves the road for it to join the United Nations and return to the international community.At thesame time,Japan evades the risk of getting involved in the cold-war confrontation too early andearns a favorable international environment for Japan to develop its national economy.In the1960's,the focal point of Japan's external strategy turns to external expansion by reliance oneconomy and with economy as backup force and pursues pro-active economic diplomacy.In the1970's,the Japan's external strategy changes to active from passive and changes to the effortto reinforce independent diplomacy and vie for the boss role on the international stage from just inthe service of the economic power.In the 1980's,the Japan's external strategy evolves towardthe objective of political power and"international country"in the orientation of playing aguiding role in the establishment of new international order.
In Part Ⅲ of the dissertation,the author expounds on the development of Japan's externalstrategy after the cold war,characterized for its efforts to strive for the position to dominate theworld and the status to say the last word in the world affairs;become a permanent member of theSecurity Council through the specific efforts;share power and responsibility with the UnitedStates and attempt an equal and a new-type partnership with the United States and Europe byactive diplomacy;play a dominating role in the Asia-Pacific region and gain more say in the Asianaffairs so as for transition to the world stage;augment military build-up,force through therestriction by Article 29 of the Constitution and dispatch its Self-Defense Force for overseasmissions;and meddle actively in the affairs of Taiwan,China and pass the newly revisedGuideline for US-Japan Defense Cooperation and bills concerning"the areas surroundingJapan"on purpose of spearheading against China.Over the past half a century,the objective ofJapan's external strategy is the sustained pursuance after the superpower position.At present,theeconomic scale of Japan has become so enormous and its desire for a political superpower status isso eager that it gets under way to revise the previous versions of its national strategy just after thestart of the new century.This will produce direct impact to the surrounding neighboring countries.To our country,it is significant that we grasp in accuracy the tendency of development of Japan'sexternal strategy.
In the concluding part of the dissertation,the author has made a thorough analysis and a deepstudy of the nature of Japan's external strategy and holds that Japan,featured in externalexpansion ever after the Meiji Reform,is a country that lacks sense of morality and justice.Beforethe War,Japan runs after Europe and the United States and carries out the policy of colonialistexpansion that results in disastrous calamity to the Asian people including the Chinese people.After the War,Japan is always ready to take it as the final aim of its diplomacy to gain as muchbenefit as possible and thus becomes reputed as"economic animal".As a result,Japan leaves tothe international community an image of an imperialist that concentrates solely on the investmentand recovery of profits and swallows the assets of other countries.Later on,if Japan continues torun after its own benefits excessively and neglects the benefits of the parties concerned in its effortto develop economic relations with other countries,the economic frictions will surely be worsenedand redoubled.Japan has presently changed to concurrent focus on politics and economy fromjust economy-centered type and is developing toward to politics-centered type and views as itsobjective to become not only an economic power but a political power and a military power.In thenew century,whether Japan becomes a political power which has international political influencethat cannot be neglected depends on whether it can(1)shatter the tackles of historical problems;(2)change its subordination to the United States;(3)make any contributions to the solution ofworld poverty and environmental problems;and(4)seek confidence from sounding countriesbefore playing roles of a power country.In the years to come,Japan will still regard the WestPacific as its key geographical locality for its external expansion.However,at the same time,theUnited States is always ready to materialize interventions worldwide.The scrambling for benefitsbetween Japan and the United States in the West Pacific is bound to head for aggravation.In theconcluding part,the author points out the causes for the development of Japan's out-and-outnationalist trend of thought and Japan's rejection to acknowledge thoroughly its War crimes,i.e.,incomplete settlement of the accounts of the Japanese militarism after the War;aggravation of thetendency of political conservatization;beginning of chauvinism and nationalism;and existentsocial basis of right-wing force.The surrounding countries should be highly on the alert againstthe phenomenon.
In the concluding remarks,the author gives points of view about what type of newinternational order should be established at present.Comrade Deng Xiao-ping drafts the overallblueprint of"new international order"and put forward the well-known statement that peace anddevelopment continue to be two major themes of the contemporary world.This is the principaltendency of the world development.However,Japan proposes that"the United States,Japan andEurope be leading forces to form,new world order".Japan seeks to be one polarity in thestrategic pattern of the future world and play a leading role in process of establishing new worldorder.
In the concluding remarks,the author makes an analysis of and looks forward to Japan'sexternal strategy in the〓century and points out that Japan has badly hurt the feelings of thepeoples of the world countries and Asian countries in particular since the Japanese Governmentdoes not face up to and engage its history of aggression in introspection.This will inflict adverseeffect to Japan's effort to play political role in the international affairs.Though powerful,theJapanese economy still sees fragility here and there.In the long run,the restriction by theinternational economy of the Japanese economy can never be belittled.
In the concluding part,the author offers some personal points of view pertaining to China'sforeign policies toward Japan.First,we are supposed to continue to advance the Sino-Japanesefriendly and cooperative relations.The geographical position means that China and Japan are andwill be neighbors generation after generation.Premier Zhou Enlai once put it,"If Sino-Japaneserelations cease to develop,there is no hope for peace in Asia.Secondly,we should have an evenwider outlook at the Sino-Japanese relations from a higher strategic dimension.Thirdly,we hadbetter to work harder in the aspects as follows:(1)to develop the friendly and cooperativerelations between the peoples of our two countries;(2)to use history as mirror;and(3)to developSino-Japanese relations,we should base our effort on the reality with our vision on the future.Finally,we should have a foothold in the long-term economic cooperative relationship.After all,peace,development,friendship and cooperation should well be the top melody of the Sino-Japanese relations in the〓century.We have good reasons to advance in this direction.