外文题名 Knowledge·thought·power-comparative research on the formation of modern political consciousness between China and Japan in 16th-19th centuries
关键词政治思想史 中国近代政治思想 日本近代政治思想 比较政治学
AbstractTitle: Knowledge · Thought· Power
—Comparative Research on the Formation of Modern Political
Consciousness between China and Japan in 〓CenturiesMajor: political TheoryDirector: professor Bao Chengguan
The different destiny of the early China and Japan modernization in the secondhalf leaf of the 〓 century is a world scholarship topic that discussed permanentlyby the Chinese and Foreign academic circles. At former researches, the academiccircles has already proceeded thorough researches on this problem from the angle ofpolitics, economy, society, culture thought etc. But up to the present, no scholarshipbook does a systemically comparative research on the formation of the China andJapan modern political consciousness from the angle of comparative thought. Sothis article tries to do a systematically comparative research on the premise and theconcrete process of the formation of China and Japan modern political thoughtduring the 〓 centuries, which depend on self-criticizing and self-examiningthe research achievements of the Chinese and Foreign academic circles in the pasthundred years, so as to reach a new explanation of the different destinies of theearly China and Japan modernization in the long developing process of politicalthought of the two countries.
The research method of this text is free from convention: It places the poweranalysis and the theory concerning knowledge change into the research of history ofpolitical thought, and emphasizes the acquiring of the new explanation on adeveloping process of political thought should be seek from three complicatedlyinteractive relations of the knowledge-thought-power. Former researches ofhistory of political thought mostly regard "thinker" or "trend of thought" asprinciple stream, studying thinker or concrete proposition about the trend of thoughtat that time period, but few attend to probe the "interacting" process between"thought" and "political power", and also seldom study knowledge premise of theoccurrence of political thought from the angle of knowledge change. The ethics ofthe "metaphysics" that cause the research on the history of thought to be divorcedfrom social construction, political construction and knowledge fluctuation in thedeveloping course of civilization and to be lost the abstruse historial insight and the
spirit with profound self-judgement become a kind of purely logical thought to
argue. At the problem of choosing the time of comparative research, this article
being different from the former researches that mainly pay attention to a time of the
〓 century second half leaf when the society is violent to change, is main to turnattention to the "pre-modernization time"( before the 〓 centuries middleperiod ). This research of long time segment aims to reveal some imperceptiblevarieties in deep layer that occurred in the field of political thought at the night
before last when China and Japan two societies took place violently change and its
influence on the different destiny of China and Japan two countries' modernization.
This article is totally divided into nine chapters, which can generalize to threeparts:
The first part of this article, mainly study Japanese and Chinese's socialbackground and knowledge premise that produce their modern politicalconsciousness.
In people's general impression, Japan and China belong to the commonmembers of the East Asia culture circles, apparently their similarity are more thantheir difference. However when we deepgoing compare and analyze the similarityand the difference of China and Japan social construction we can discover Japanesecivilization use a large quantity of"Chinese material" in the process of its setting up,yet along with time changing Japan's social construction and political powerstructure all showed the entirely different characters from China's. Such as thedifference between the centralization system of an autocratic monarchy and theShogun system, the difference between the Confucianism domination and the theorydiversity etc. These different characteristics make a tremendous difference onpolitical power of the two feudal countries existed corresponding to the way ofcontrolling in knowledge and thought, which directly affect the occurrence and thedevelopment of two countries' modern political consciousness.
"The knowledge storage is the premise of thought acceptance, the knowledgechange is usually the omen of thought change". The wave of "the orient invasion ofwestern dint" and "the orient spread of western subjects" that originated from the
〓 century change the basically traditional structure of the mankind civilization,and bring a tremendous lash to non-western countries, which make them begin toface directly "such a turmoil several thousand years have no contained as this". Seefrom the angle of the history of thought culture. "the orient spread of westernsubjects" in practice is a movement of "the knowledge transfer" with anunprecedented size in the history of human civilization. Between Japan and Chinathe two countries, we come in sight of the complicated interactive process in manydirections among "the society change"- "the knowledge fluctuation"- "thethought change" of which are all not synchronous, whether from time or from spaceI think privately: Unless placing the production of modern political consciousness tothe movement of "the knowledge transfer" in a large background of "the orientspread of western subjects", the basic premise of the production of modern thoughtconsciousness、 the complexity with difficult and frustration in its developingprocession will be adequately comprehended. The core standpoint that author putforth effort to elaborate is: from the 〓 century till the middle period of the 〓century, facing rigorous challenges of the western capitalism powers, Japaneseknowledge circles at the period of Shogun takes a lead to break through the idea thatChina is supreme and others are all vulgar by translating western books andabsorbing western learning, and establishes the world outlook of scientificpositivism. They realize the threaten on Japan from western powers, and under theair of the diverse struggle they proceed ardent discussions on the problems aroundclosing nation or opening, the conversion of political ruling system etc. and thenearly establish modern political consciousness. And the development of the politicalthought in corresponding period of China also appeared the revival of the study onConfucian classics with new evidence of modern breathing etc. yet under thesuppression of Qing Dynasty's autocracy the whole thought circles sink into such adead silence as ten thousand horses all muted. Under the function of abnormalmood that China is honorable but other nations are vulgar, the bureaucrats orscholar-officials reject and refute western learning abiding by traditional knowledgesystem and thus their modern political consciousness is naturally difficult toestablish, which directly cause the delay of early Chinese modernization in China.
The second part of this article systematically research the basic process of theChina and Japan modern political consciousness.
How to generalize and describe the mark of the starting point of the processthat non-western nations commenced their modern political consciousness, is animportant problem to comprehend the formations of modern political consciousnessof China and Japan two countries and their special developing patterns. In thepreceding researches of the academic circles, are usually in coordinate with westerncivilization regarding the occurrence of "the enlightenment thought" and "thedemocracy thought" etc. as the mark of the appearance of modern politicalconsciousness, which obviously marks as the standard of the "modern thought's"occurrence among non-western nations relying on a series of characteristics of theemergence of "modern thought" at that time when western countries walked into themodern times, and regards the "modernization" of western nations as the rule of"universality" neglecting the peculiarity of non-western nations selves.
In fact, facing the challenge of western civilization the primary morphologyin the producing period of modern political consciousness of non-western countriesisn't the "democracy" thought and the "enlightenment" thought, but regard thethought of saving the nation from doom and ensuring its survival concerning alife-and-death crisis for the nation as main contents, such as "crisis consciousness"、"conformity consciousness of the form of government"、 "national consciousness"and "the open consciousness" etc. that formed in the course of responding thechallenge of western capitalism's "modernization". Within this period the thoughtsof democracy enlightenment just display their clues for the first time and still notconstitute the development's main direction of modern political thoughtconsciousness. And these thoughts are such a series of view brought up by politicalperson and social essence concerning the democratic enlightenment and the nationalreform of the form of government. Just along with the further spread of westernlearning and the further propulsion of political reform, these thoughts becomegradually the core topic of the history of political thought. But whether "the freecivil rights movement" in Japan or "the open parliament" and "the army-civilianjoint domination" advocated by the reform school in early period of China, theproceeding roads of the two are full of extreme frustrations. See from the history,the political claim on "the systematical reform" of school of the Chinese reformannounced a failure, but Japan walked to the fascism's road in the 1930's andultimately casts into a greatly aggrieved tragedy for the nation. This also reflectfrom one side the frustration in the course of the production and the development ofmodern enlightenment thought of non-western nations.
From the dynamic angle, observing and analyzing the producing process ofmodern political consciousness of China and Japan two countries, we will discoverthere always exists a huge time difference for the delay between two countries in theprocess of the occurrence and development of two countries' modern politicalconsciousness. Such as in Japan as early as around the 〓 century, ruling class andknowledge essence are aware of that western civilization is a higher "pre-eminentcivilization" than the East Asia world's and produce a strongly crisis consciousness.But till the 1860's, Qing Dynasty's government and people really realized they metwith "a formidable opponent who haven't been seen for several thousand years",and then produced "the transform consciousness". In the field of the integralconsciousness of the form of government because of the abruption of politicalpower in the system of Japanese Shogun. To establish a unified nation very earlybecame the most urgent mission in Japan. As early as around the 〓 century, Japanappeared the diversely integral thought of the form of government, this kind ofdrastic discussion or contention around the transformational problem of the politicalsystem for the nation, directly lays a thought foundation for Japan to fulfill thetransformational mission of "the national system" in a short time of fifteen yearsfrom the end of Shogun to the beginning of Meiji. But in China being ruled by theQing dynasty the reform consciousness of the form of government produced byuntil the seriously national crisis appeared in the 1860's-1870's. See from thehistory, it is this obviously kind of the "time difference" that directly affect thehistory destiny of early modernization between China and Japan two countries.
The third part of this article, primarily studies the process of "the interactivepermeation" between "modern thought" and "political power".
Thinker's cognition represents the depth of the ages cognition. And theinteractive permeation between the new thought with modern meaning and thepolitical power will make the thought being turned into political action combinewith realistic society. In other words, this is practically a whole process of bringing"power analysis" into the research on the history of political thought that attends tostudy the relational problem among "knowledge"- "thought"- "power". Bycomparative researching on the individual cases such as the jail of 〓inJapan and the movement of banning on opium-smoking and the opium trade inChina etc. This article discovers the reason of which the "interaction" between twocountries' political thought and political power form completely different orbits isthat the two countries differ greatly in their traditionally political constructions. Onone hand, the different constructions of China and Japan political power play astrongly restricted role in the production of modern political consciousness of thetwo countries. on the other hand, the modern political consciousness around themiddle period of the 〓 century owned by the China and Japan knowledge essenceisn't absolutely "dead knowledge" of a study type and has an certain effect on thepolitical power. Because the productions of modern political consciousness of thetwo countries have the remarkable "non-synchronization", their forms of expressionbeing affected exist great difference. In Japan, by the medium of the closely contactbetween the scholarship teams of studying western learning with the genealogist astheir main body and dukes and governor's offices, western learning or newknowledge input constantly the inner part of Japanese ruling group, which make andthe inner part of Japanese ruling class appear a political force working for pushingforward the reform of modernization who has taken an decisive effect on theJapanese social reform. But in the corresponding period of the Chinese ideologicalcircles, although the appearance of the unorthodox thought and the social thought ofpolitical criticism differ from the traditionally feudalistic orthodoxy, because Chinaaround the middle period of the 〓 century is short of such a scholarship groupwith modern meaning as the genealogical group of Japan, the formation of whosemodern political consciousness is caused seriously tardy, which directly affect theearly modernization to commence an undertaking.
See from the angle of the transformation of the political trend of thought, the"non-synchronous" development of modern political consciousness in Japan andChina started in the second half leaf of the 〓century produces a profoundinfluence on the two countries' position in the system of the East Asia civilizationand on the afterward process of the earlier period's modernization, which tell people,there exists a large "differences of time" as early as the beginning stage ofmodernization between Japan and China. This "differences of time" not onlyexpresses in the aspect of the implements' assimilation but also shows obviously inthe aspect of political thought, which in fact is a concentrated reflection of the twocountries' synthesized ability to respond challenge of western modern civilization.Obviously, it is this difference comes to a fact that China is already behind of Japanin the beginning phase of its earlier period's modernization.