关键词朝鲜儒学 日本儒学 儒家 儒学
A historic comparison is conducted in this dissertation on the introduction of China's Confucianism into ancient Korea and Japan, its development there and their respective traits, through which it attempts to expound the essential difference of Confucianism in two countries and the abstruse reason that leads to this difference, with the conclusion that: social existence determines social consciousness and conversely social consciousness influences social existence. The Confucianism of Korea is similar to Japan in appearance but in fact there is a great difference between them. The reason leading to this difference is their different social life styles. Different existence structures of two countries decide the different culling standards to the culture of Confucianism and these different standards also influence their life styles greatly. In other words, the initial life style decides the cultural pattern and the cultural pattern based on the life style causes the society developing in the direction guided by the culture. The development of Confucianism in Korea and Japan reveals the process clearly.
Relatively, Korea depended on natural arrangement and took the shape of natural villages in a crosswise, dispersed and equal way, but Japan relied on the man-made region to form the social rank groups with superiority and inferiority; Korea depended on the stated-owned, small sized barren lands to form the religion group centering on the consanguinity, which turned it to be a onefold society composed mainly of the peasants, while Japan relied on the so-called private lands being conquered and cultivated by the landlords to form the family groups centering on the ties of blood, which made Japan become a society with labor division, including soldiers, peasants, workers and merchants; In Korea, the feudal king was considered as the top of the pagoda and the government officials who seated below the king were selected through the imperial examination system, as a result, Korea formed a centralized feudal monarchy; and Japan was a state taking the form of the dualistic system of an emperor and a shogunate, but in fact it was separately ruled by almost three hundreds feudal dukes. There was the alternation of dynasties in Korea, but it was a stable and rigid society with each dynasty lasting for 500 or 1000 years without any war; while Japan was a turbulent society with only one king but the real power wandering about. Korea advocated the culture with the noble men possessing the hegemony of speech, but Japan upheld the powerful and indisputable warrior culture.
Because of these differences in the structures of two societies, the same Confucianism produced different significance through different processes of selection: In Korea, people chose these abstract and metaphysics conceptions such as"benevolence", "ethics"and "nature", but in Japan, they just abandoned these conceptions and absorbed the practical behavior principles such as"loyalty", "faith" and"righteousness". So, in Korea, Confucianism developed from a notional thought to a systematical existence and finally became a more mature social and cultural ideology, which strengthened the family ethics, loyal and filial consciousness, ritual standards and moral self-discipline, and pushed Confucianism toward the universal cultural stage exceeding nationality and country. At the same time, the Confucianism of Korea also provided the breeding ground for the growth of demerits, such as self-satisfaction and conservatism, arrogance, being fettered by conventions, empty theory and talks, etc. However, in Japan the abstract, nihilistic and ideas of Confucianism gradually disappeared or transformed into concrete、practical and manipulative ideas and they led the Confucian culture deconstructed and became the lubricant of various kinds of subordinate cultures, for instance, Confucianism became the political banner of the Emperor, the learning and self-cultivation of the clergymen, the source of theology, the rational tools of the cultural education, the ethic basis safeguarding the relationship between the principal and the subordinate, the social professional means for existence of the Confucian, the methodological source to responding the western civilization, the ideological preparation for Meiji reform realizing unitary system of government, etc.
In short, the social life style and cultural system of Korea were natural, unitary and integral; however, in Japan, they were man-made, multiple and differential. So, in the social life and cultural system of Korea it is easy to produce the universalism, absolutism and ideologism, but in Japan they cannot tolerate them. So, in Korea, the idea of Confucianism based on the universal moral human nature was adapted to and gradually merged into their social life and cultural system. In Japan, it was first deconstructed and reformed according to their social and cultural characteristics and then gradually made it serve for the social life and cultural system.