古代朝鲜和日本儒学特质及其成因比较

2019-02-01 16:50:28

social Confucianism Japan Korea 儒学









中文题名古代朝鲜和日本儒学特质及其成因比较

 





副题名 





外文题名 





论文作者潘畅和   





导师潘富恩教授   





学科专业中国哲学   





研究领域\研究方向 





学位级别博士 





学位授予单位复旦大学   





学位授予日期2002   





论文页码总数115页   





关键词朝鲜儒学  日本儒学  儒家  儒学   





馆藏号BSLW

/2003

/B312

/1 





【中文摘要】

    论文通过对中国的儒学思想在古代朝鲜和日本的传入、发展及其特点的历史比较,试图论证两国儒家思想文化的本质差异及其导致这种差异的深层原因,得出这样的结论:社会存在决定社会意识,社会意识又反过来影响社会存在。朝鲜和日本的儒学貌似相近实际上大相径庭,在本质上存在着巨大的差异。而导致这种差异的原因,首先是由他们不同的社会生活样式决定的。即两国不同的生存结构决定了对儒学文化不同的筛选标准,筛选过来的儒学文化又各自极大地影响了两国的社会生活样式。换句话说就是最初的生活样式决定了文化样式,而建筑于生活样式之上的文化样式后来又相当地造成了社会的发展按照文化的指引前进。朝鲜和日本的儒学发展非常清晰地展示出了这一过程:
   比较而言,朝鲜依赖自然的安排,形成横向、散在、平等的自然村落,日本则依赖村界分属的人为区域,形成上下主从的等级集团;朝鲜依赖属于国家所有的现成的小片贫瘠土地,形成以血缘为核心的宗法集团,而且是以农民为绝对主体的单一社会,日本则围绕靠征服和开拓而来的“地主”私有土地,形成以血缘为核心也纳入非血缘的家业集团,而且是士农工商四民皆有的分工社会;朝鲜是以封建国王为塔顶,靠科举选拔的官吏为梯队的“一君万民”的中央集权制,日本则是以天皇与幕府的二元体制为形式,实以近300诸侯分治的国家;朝鲜是虽有王朝更迭但一个王朝能维持500年乃至1000年之久而无战争的稳定僵化的社会,日本则是天皇虽万世一系但国家实权流转多战事的动荡变化的社会;朝鲜是崇尚君子具有话语霸权的“士文化”,日本则是崇尚力量没有争辩的“武士文化”,等等。
   在如此不同的主体结构中,同样的儒家文化经历了不同的筛选过程并产生了不同的整体意义:朝鲜儒学较多地选择了儒学中的“仁”、“理”、“性”等这些抽象的、形而上学终极层次上的概念范畴,而日本儒学恰好舍弃这些部分,较多地吸收“忠”、“信”、“义”等具体实用的中间层次上的行为原则。这样,在朝鲜,儒家文化从一种观念化的思想逐渐发展成一种制度化的存在而成为更加成熟的社会文化意识形态,从而使家庭伦理、忠孝意识、礼仪规范、道德自律进一步得到强化,华夷观念、名分思想、春秋大义、天下意识等有了独到的发展并最终将儒学推向了真正的超越民族和国家的普遍主义文化阶段。与此同时,朝鲜儒学又为故步自封、惟我独尊、因循守旧、空理空谈等弊端的发展提供了温床并达到了极至。而在日本,儒学的那些抽象的、虚无的、理念的部分逐渐脱落,或者逐渐转化为具体的、实用的、可操作的形态,导致儒家文化整体被解构而成为各部门文化的润滑济:儒学成为天皇朝廷的政治旗帜、佛僧的学问修养、神学的理论来源、文化教育的理性工具、维护主从关系的伦理基础、儒者社会职业性的生存手段、灵活对应西洋文明的方法论根据、明治维新实现一元政体的思想准备,等等。
   总之,朝鲜的社会生活样式和文化系统是自然的、单一的、整体的;而日本则是人为的、多元的、分化的。因此,在朝鲜的社会生活和文化系统中容易产生普遍主义、绝对主义、理念主义,而日本则容不下这些。这样,以普遍的道德人性为出发点的儒家思想,在朝鲜,适应朝鲜社会文化形式的特点,逐渐被融进她们的社会生活和文化系统中而成为自己的血肉;在日本,则适应日本的社会文化形式特点,逐渐被解构,割取和改造而成为随时随地为自己社会生活和文化系统提供温暖的贴身袄。











【外文摘要】

 Abstract
   A historic comparison is conducted in this dissertation on the introduction of China's Confucianism into ancient Korea and Japan, its development there and their respective traits, through which it attempts to expound the essential difference of Confucianism in two countries and the abstruse reason that leads to this difference, with the conclusion that: social existence determines social consciousness and conversely social consciousness influences social existence. The Confucianism of Korea is similar to Japan in appearance but in fact there is a great difference between them. The reason leading to this difference is their different social life styles. Different existence structures of two countries decide the different culling standards to the culture of Confucianism and these different standards also influence their life styles greatly. In other words, the initial life style decides the cultural pattern and the cultural pattern based on the life style causes the society developing in the direction guided by the culture. The development of Confucianism in Korea and Japan reveals the process clearly.
   Relatively, Korea depended on natural arrangement and took the shape of natural villages in a crosswise, dispersed and equal way, but Japan relied on the man-made region to form the social rank groups with superiority and inferiority; Korea depended on the stated-owned, small sized barren lands to form the religion group centering on the consanguinity, which turned it to be a onefold society composed mainly of the peasants, while Japan relied on the so-called private lands being conquered and cultivated by the landlords to form the family groups centering on the ties of blood, which made Japan become a society with labor division, including soldiers, peasants, workers and merchants; In Korea, the feudal king was considered as the top of the pagoda and the government officials who seated below the king were selected through the imperial examination system, as a result, Korea formed a centralized feudal monarchy; and Japan was a state taking the form of the dualistic system of an emperor and a shogunate, but in fact it was separately ruled by almost three hundreds feudal dukes. There was the alternation of dynasties in Korea, but it was a stable and rigid society with each dynasty lasting for 500 or 1000 years without any war; while Japan was a turbulent society with only one king but the real power wandering about. Korea advocated the culture with the noble men possessing the hegemony of speech, but Japan upheld the powerful and indisputable warrior culture.
   Because of these differences in the structures of two societies, the same Confucianism produced different significance through different processes of selection: In Korea, people chose these abstract and metaphysics conceptions such as"benevolence", "ethics"and "nature", but in Japan, they just abandoned these conceptions and absorbed the practical behavior principles such as"loyalty", "faith" and"righteousness". So, in Korea, Confucianism developed from a notional thought to a systematical existence and finally became a more mature social and cultural ideology, which strengthened the family ethics, loyal and filial consciousness, ritual standards and moral self-discipline, and pushed Confucianism toward the universal cultural stage exceeding nationality and country. At the same time, the Confucianism of Korea also provided the breeding ground for the growth of demerits, such as self-satisfaction and conservatism, arrogance, being fettered by conventions, empty theory and talks, etc. However, in Japan the abstract, nihilistic and ideas of Confucianism gradually disappeared or transformed into concrete、practical and manipulative ideas and they led the Confucian culture deconstructed and became the lubricant of various kinds of subordinate cultures, for instance, Confucianism became the political banner of the Emperor, the learning and self-cultivation of the clergymen, the source of theology, the rational tools of the cultural education, the ethic basis safeguarding the relationship between the principal and the subordinate, the social professional means for existence of the Confucian, the methodological source to responding the western civilization, the ideological preparation for Meiji reform realizing unitary system of government, etc.
   In short, the social life style and cultural system of Korea were natural, unitary and integral; however, in Japan, they were man-made, multiple and differential. So, in the social life and cultural system of Korea it is easy to produce the universalism, absolutism and ideologism, but in Japan they cannot tolerate them. So, in Korea, the idea of Confucianism based on the universal moral human nature was adapted to and gradually merged into their social life and cultural system. In Japan, it was first deconstructed and reformed according to their social and cultural characteristics and then gradually made it serve for the social life and cultural system.