关键词开发援助 中日关系 政府开发援助 日本外交
1，国际开发援助体系与日本ODA 政府开发援助或称官方发展援助(Official Development Assistance:ODA)，是由发达国家组成的经济合作与发展组织(Official Economic CooperationDevelopment:OECD)下属的“开发援助委员会”(Development Assistance Committee:DAC)，对发展中国家提供的赠与比率不低于25％的大规模经济援助，是国家之间具有战略意义的经济性、政策性的政府行为。是以主权民族国家为基本行为主体，由发达国家向发展中国家进行的大规模、制度化的资源转移，是在价值规律和市场体系以外的非经济性因素作用下，资金、技术、知识等生产要素在国家之间的配置、流动和转移，是以国家或政府的政策行为对双边或多边的国际关系进行调整的产物。在援助国与被援助国的国家关系网络之间，援助问题处于政治与经济的交汇点，涉及到国家关系的政治、外交、法律、安全、经济、贸易、金融、技术、文化等多个双边交流与合作的领域。
· Ⅰ. The System of IDA (International Development Assistance) and Japan's ODA Governmental Development Assistance (GDA) or Official Development Assistance(ODA) is a sort of massive favorable economic assistance provided by Official EconomicCooperation Development (OECD, whose members are mostly developed countries) for thedeveloping countries. Thus ODA is a governmental economic behavior with great strategicsignificance among different countries. Theoretically, ODA, with sovereign national states asits actors, is a massive and regular resources transfer from developed nations to developingones. In other words, ODA, which is generated by some non-economic factors beyond the lawof value and the system of market, is an international reallocation, distribution and transfer ofessential productive factors such as capital, technology and knowledge etc. It is also theproduct of one national state or government adjusting bilateral or multilateral relations. Inshort, in the net of relations between aid-giving country and aid-accepting country, ODA is atthe cross point where it is involved with both national politics and economy, and it touchesupon diverse bilateral exchanges and co-operations ranging from politics, diplomacy, legalaffairs, security, economy, trade, finance, technology, culture and so on. In the history of international relations after World War Ⅱ, IDA has been at theintersection point where the relations between east and west, south and north come together. Consequently, IDA is not only a phenomenon having enjoyed the world attention in the field of international politics and economy, but also a result of the evolution of international relations. Now, no country can isolate itself from the network of IDA, which has become an important part of the system of international relations. So, the theory of IDA has come to be an important research realm of international politics. Making a historical review and perspective study of the history, reality, tendency, policy, guidelines, theory of the issues about IDA is not only a basic academic research but also a policy research with great practical importance. Making a study of IDA is aninterdisciplinary research of international politics as well as an in-depth research ofinternational relations. IDA is not merely a matter of international economy or internationalpolitics, but a matter of both international politics and economy. It is a typical matter ofinternational political economy that defines itself as an interdisciplinary subject involvinginternational politics and economy. As a policy with some certain political, diplomatic and long-run strategic intentions,ODA is increasingly becoming an important way for the developed countries to express theirgovernmental wills, readjust the international relations, balance the international structure,shape a world order and fulfill their strategic objectives of national development. Now thatthe developed powers undoubtedly remain their predominant roles in the structure ofinternational relations and world politics, their world strategy and policies definitely playsignificant roles and profound impacts on the evolution of international relations. Therefore,IDA provided by some developed countries and its important roles in international relationsand world strategic structure have increasingly enjoyed more and more awareness, attentionsand study, and become an important research subject crossing such disciplines asinternational politics, international relations, international law, international economics andso on.Ⅱ. Japan's strategy toward China and its ODA to China Since 1980s, Japan's ODA has enjoyed more and more important position in the field of IDA. In 1989, Japan surpassed U.S.A to become the largest aid-giving nation in the world with the exception of 1990. As a result, we have to study Japan's ODA when coming to IDA. So making a thoroughly scientific analysis and historical examination of Japan's policy toward ODA and a series of such relevant issues as the history, development, policy amendments, strategic intentions, practice, tendencies, and theory of Japan's ODA to China are not only of great practical importance for studying the contemporary international relations, the world political structure, and Japan's politics, foreign affairs and thedevelopment tendencies of its world strategy, but also of perspective importance for keepingtrack of present and future Japan-China relationship. Meanwhile, making a study of Japan'sODA to China can enrich, expand and deepen the theory and research of internationalpolitics. Japanese government adopted the policy of providing ODA to China from December1979. Within the past more than two decades, Japan's ODA to China, as an important symboland the main means of cooperation of Japan-China friendly neighborhood, has become one ofthe most important part in Japan-China relations. By the end of 2000, Japan has become thefirst largest developed country to provide ODA to China. By then, the total sum of Japan'sODA to China has come up to nearly 6000 billions Japanese yen equivalent to 50 billions USdollars according to the world average foreign exchange rate in 2000, in which the loan inyen came up to 2650 billions, the energy loan 2400 billion yen, unpaid loan and China's trade surplus around 200-300 billions yen. The total sum of Japan's loan accounts for 41.91 percent of the foreign loans to China with the first position, Germany follows Japan with 9.86 percent as the second largest one while the U.S.A ranks itself the twelfth one with 0.1 percent. With China as one of the few largest countries receiving Japan's ODA, Japan's loans to China in Japanese yen constitute the second position with 11 percent in its total foreign loans. Therefore, the study of Japan's ODA, especially its ODA to China is absolutely an important research subject involving such academic fields as Japanese study, especially Japan's politics, foreign affairs, foreign policy and its world strategy as well as Japan-China relations and China's foreign policy toward Japan. Since the early of 1990s, Japanese government has begun to readjust its policy toward ODA by a big margin or even radically. In June 1992, Japanese cabinet enacted and published "The Principles for GDA" in which "The Four Principles for ODA" were put forward. From these principles, we can make sure that Japan has made a big readjustment of some basic ideas and policies of its ODA having practiced after World War Ⅱ. We can also find thatJapanese government has added some strict political conditions and non-economic standardsto ODA and highlighted its political and strategic intentions. In 1994, Japan for the first timelaunched sanctions to freeze its ODA programs to China by cooking up an excuse of China'snuclear tests. The event made the well-practicing ODA become an important issue to triggerthe political and diplomatic conflicts between Japan and China, thus Japan's ODA to Chinahas become a touchstone and barometer of China-Japan relationship. It's evident that Japanese government attempts to clarify its strategic intentions andimpose its impact on China by making a change and adjustment of ODA to China. As a result,Japan's adjustment of its policy toward ODA not only reflects the changes of its officialpolicy toward China and its diplomatic strategy, but also will produce potential impacts not tobe ignored on future Japan-China relations and the international relations in the Asian-Pacificregion at large. As one of the China's top leaders, Zhu Rongji, the Premier for the first timeformally spoke of Japan's ODA to China in public during his state visit to Tokyo, whichsuggests that Chinese government pays high importance to Japan's ODA and treats it as amajor issue to have much bearing on the sound development of the future Japan-China relationship. So making a study of Japan's policy toward ODA and the tendency of its foreign strategy bears such practical importance that we can provide some background materials, policy analysis, countermoves and foreign strategy for our government when making foreign policy toward Japan. In March 2002, Japanese government decided to make a radical adjustment of its policy toward ODA to China, and began to cut down on its ODA to China from 2001, when Japan's ODA to China dropped by 17 percent. After 2001, Japan would annually make an examination and ratification of its ODA to China. As a result, Japan's ODA to China which has maintained a growing momentum during the last two decades appeared to drop substantially for the first time, and is likely to continue dropping year by year in the future. The radical change and tendency of Japan's ODA to China is a clear sign suggesting that Japanese government has made a new-round readjustment of its policy and strategytoward China. This dissertation is intended to make a profound exploration and analyses of thefollowing questions. 1. What are the main reasons for Japan's adjustment in its policy and strategy toward ODA in the internal and external aspects? 2. What are the international backgrounds for this policy adjustment? Is the adjustment based on Japanese domestic realpolitik or its long-run consideration about international strategy? 3. What tendency in Japanese domestic politics does the ODA policy adjustment reflect? What kind of mentalities about China does the adjustment reflect? Does it indicate that Japan will make a radical change of its current foreign strategy and policy toward China? 4. What kind of potential and in-depth impacts will the policy adjustment have on the ongoing relationship between China and Japan in the 21th century? What impacts will it have on the China-U.S-Japan triangle and the international pattern in the Asian-Pacific region? 5. How will Chinese government define Japan's position in its foreign chessboard and lay down its foreign strategy toward Japan in accordance with its national interests by drawing on the historical experience? How to make a sound understanding of the role of Japan's ODA in China's modernization? What kind of positive and effective countermoves should China take?