日本政府开发援助与中日关系

2019-01-23 14:27:46

policy international China Japan ODA









中文题名日本政府开发援助与中日关系

 





副题名 





外文题名 





论文作者林晓光   





导师张中云教授   





学科专业国际政治学   





研究领域\研究方向 





学位级别博士 





学位授予单位中共中央党校   





学位授予日期2002   





论文页码总数194页   





关键词开发援助  中日关系  政府开发援助  日本外交   





馆藏号BSLW

/2003

/D831.3

/1 





【中文摘要】

    内容提要
   1,国际开发援助体系与日本ODA 政府开发援助或称官方发展援助(Official Development Assistance:ODA),是由发达国家组成的经济合作与发展组织(Official Economic CooperationDevelopment:OECD)下属的“开发援助委员会”(Development Assistance Committee:DAC),对发展中国家提供的赠与比率不低于25%的大规模经济援助,是国家之间具有战略意义的经济性、政策性的政府行为。是以主权民族国家为基本行为主体,由发达国家向发展中国家进行的大规模、制度化的资源转移,是在价值规律和市场体系以外的非经济性因素作用下,资金、技术、知识等生产要素在国家之间的配置、流动和转移,是以国家或政府的政策行为对双边或多边的国际关系进行调整的产物。在援助国与被援助国的国家关系网络之间,援助问题处于政治与经济的交汇点,涉及到国家关系的政治、外交、法律、安全、经济、贸易、金融、技术、文化等多个双边交流与合作的领域。
在战后国际关系史上,国际开发援助位于东西关系和南北关系的十字构图的焦点,既是引人注目的国际政治经济现象,又是国际关系发展变化的产物,没有哪个国家能够完全游离于作为国际关系体系之重要组成部分的国际开发援助的系统网络之外。
与此相应,国际开发援助理论也逐步成为国际政治学的一个重要研究领域。对于国际开发援助问题的历史、现实、走向和政策、方针、理论,进行历史性考察和前瞻性研究,既是基础性、学理性的学术研究,又是现实性、实践性很强的政策研究;既是国际政治研究领域的横向拓宽,也是国际关系研究的深度进展。国际开发援助不是单纯的国际经济现象或国际政治现象,而是兼及政治和经济的国际行为,是典型的国际政治经济现象(political economy),在国际关系学研究领域是介乎于国际政治与国际经济之间的交叉性、边缘性课题。冷战后的今天,和平与发展已成为世界的主题,国际政治与国际经济互相渗透、互相交融。在国际关系中,传统的国家安全、军备控制、战略均势、核武器、危机管理等“高位政治”仍然是重要课题,但环境、人口、经济发展、科技进步、贸易往来等传统的“低位政治”日趋重要,日益成为国际政治学的研究对象。
ODA作为带有政治外交目的和长远战略意图的政策行为,日益成为各发达国家政府表达本国意志、调整国家关系、平衡国际格局、建构国际秩序、实现国家发展战略目标的重要手段和主要方式。鉴于发达国家目前在国际关系体系和国际政治格局中处于无庸讳言的主导性优势地位,其战略动向和政策行为对国际关系的演变发展具有无可否认的重大作用和深远影响,因此主要由发达国家进行的国际援助及其在国际关系体系和世界战略格局中的重要意义也日益为人们认知、重视、考察和研究,成为兼跨国际政治学、国际关系学和国际法学、国际经济学等多个学科的研究对象和重要课题。
20世纪80年代以后,日本的ODA在国际开发援助体系中占有的地位日趋重要,并从1989年起超过美国成为世界第一援助大国(除1990年外)。因此,研究国际开发援助问题,就不能不研究日本ODA的政策行为。对日本的ODA政策,及其对华ODA的历史沿革、发展变化、决策过程、政策调整、战略意图、实施现状、未来走向和理论框架等一系列问题进行学理性分析和历史性考察,不仅具有研究国际关系体系和国际政治格局,分析日本政治外交和战略走向的现实意义,也具有追踪考察中日关系现状和未来发展的前瞻性意义,同时还具有丰富、发展和深化国际政治学学科建设的理论和学术的意义。2,日本对华战略与对华ODA 日本政府从1979年12月决定对中国提供ODA。20多年来,ODA作为中日睦邻友好的重要象征和经济合作的主要内容,已成为中日关系中最重要的组成部分之一。到2000年年底为止,日方总共对华提供了日元贷款约2.65万亿、能源贷款约2.4万亿日元、无偿贷款和黑字还流约2000—3000亿日元,总计近6万亿日元,按2000年的平均汇率,约为500亿美元;占中国利用外国政府贷款的41.91%,位居第一,而居第二位的德国占9.86%,美国居第二十位,仅占0.1%;日本已成为对华提供ODA最多的发达国家。我国也是接受日本ODA最多的几个国家之一,对华日元贷款占日本对外日元贷款的11%,平均居第二位。因此,对日本的ODA问题、尤其是对华ODA问题进行研究,不能不成为日本问题研究、特别是日本政治和外交、对外政策和国际战略研究,以及中日关系、中国对日政策研究等学科领域中的重要课题。
90年代初期以来,日本政府开始对ODA政策进行较大幅度、甚至是根本性的调整。1992年6月,日本内阁会议制定和公布了《政府开发援助大纲》,提出“ODA四原则”,对战后以来的ODA的基本理念和政策方针进行了重大调整,对ODA附加严格的政治条件和非经济性标准,突出了ODA的政治色彩和战略意图。1994年首次以中国核试验为由进行制裁,冻结对华ODA援助计划,使本来一直顺利实施的对华ODA成为引发中日之间政治外交摩擦的重要问题之一,成为检验中日战略关系好坏与否的试金石和晴雨表。
显然,日本政府力图通过ODA的变化和调整来表明战略意图,对中国施加影响。因此,ODA政策的变化不仅将反映日本政府对华政策和外交战略的变化,也将对今后的中日关系和亚太地区国际关系产生不容忽视的潜在影响。朱熔基总理在2000年10月访日之际作为中国领导人首次在公开场合正式提到日本对华ODA的问题,说明我国政府对这一问题的极大重视,并将其视为关系到未来中日关系正常发展的重要问题。因此研究日本的ODA政策及其外交战略走向,还具有为我国政府的对日外交提供背景材料、政策分析、对策研究和战略构想的现实意义。2002年3月,日本政府决定大幅度调整对华ODA政策,从2001年度开始削减对华ODA,当年度的削减幅度为17%,以后将每年就对华ODA问题进行审议和批准。从而使20年来一直呈逐步增长态势的对华ODA不仅第一次实质性下降,而且将有可能继续逐年削减。对华ODA政策的这一变化及其走向,不能不是日本政府对华政策及战略思考发生新一轮重大变动的明显征兆。
这一政策和战略变动的国内外原因是什末,有何国际背景,是基于国内现实政治需要、还是具有长远国际战略考虑,反映了日本国内何种政治走向、何种对华认识倾向,是否意味着现行的日本对华外交战略和政策方针将发生重大和根本性的变化?对进入21世纪的中日关系、中美日三角关系以及亚太地区国际关系格局将可能产生何种潜在性和深远性的影响?我国应该怎样依据国家利益,借鉴历史的经验,确定日本在我国外交中的地位,制定相应的对日战略方针?怎样认识日本的ODA对于我国经济建设的作用和意义,应采取何种积极有效的对策?将是本文所试图探讨并加以分析研究的问题。











【外文摘要】

   
ABSTRACT
· Ⅰ. The System of IDA (International Development Assistance) and Japan's ODA Governmental Development Assistance (GDA) or Official Development Assistance(ODA) is a sort of massive favorable economic assistance provided by Official EconomicCooperation Development (OECD, whose members are mostly developed countries) for thedeveloping countries. Thus ODA is a governmental economic behavior with great strategicsignificance among different countries. Theoretically, ODA, with sovereign national states asits actors, is a massive and regular resources transfer from developed nations to developingones. In other words, ODA, which is generated by some non-economic factors beyond the lawof value and the system of market, is an international reallocation, distribution and transfer ofessential productive factors such as capital, technology and knowledge etc. It is also theproduct of one national state or government adjusting bilateral or multilateral relations. Inshort, in the net of relations between aid-giving country and aid-accepting country, ODA is atthe cross point where it is involved with both national politics and economy, and it touchesupon diverse bilateral exchanges and co-operations ranging from politics, diplomacy, legalaffairs, security, economy, trade, finance, technology, culture and so on. In the history of international relations after World War Ⅱ, IDA has been at theintersection point where the relations between east and west, south and north come together. Consequently, IDA is not only a phenomenon having enjoyed the world attention in the field of international politics and economy, but also a result of the evolution of international relations. Now, no country can isolate itself from the network of IDA, which has become an important part of the system of international relations. So, the theory of IDA has come to be an important research realm of international politics. Making a historical review and perspective study of the history, reality, tendency, policy, guidelines, theory of the issues about IDA is not only a basic academic research but also a policy research with great practical importance. Making a study of IDA is aninterdisciplinary research of international politics as well as an in-depth research ofinternational relations. IDA is not merely a matter of international economy or internationalpolitics, but a matter of both international politics and economy. It is a typical matter ofinternational political economy that defines itself as an interdisciplinary subject involvinginternational politics and economy. As a policy with some certain political, diplomatic and long-run strategic intentions,ODA is increasingly becoming an important way for the developed countries to express theirgovernmental wills, readjust the international relations, balance the international structure,shape a world order and fulfill their strategic objectives of national development. Now thatthe developed powers undoubtedly remain their predominant roles in the structure ofinternational relations and world politics, their world strategy and policies definitely playsignificant roles and profound impacts on the evolution of international relations. Therefore,IDA provided by some developed countries and its important roles in international relationsand world strategic structure have increasingly enjoyed more and more awareness, attentionsand study, and become an important research subject crossing such disciplines asinternational politics, international relations, international law, international economics andso on.Ⅱ. Japan's strategy toward China and its ODA to China Since 1980s, Japan's ODA has enjoyed more and more important position in the field of IDA. In 1989, Japan surpassed U.S.A to become the largest aid-giving nation in the world with the exception of 1990. As a result, we have to study Japan's ODA when coming to IDA. So making a thoroughly scientific analysis and historical examination of Japan's policy toward ODA and a series of such relevant issues as the history, development, policy amendments, strategic intentions, practice, tendencies, and theory of Japan's ODA to China are not only of great practical importance for studying the contemporary international relations, the world political structure, and Japan's politics, foreign affairs and thedevelopment tendencies of its world strategy, but also of perspective importance for keepingtrack of present and future Japan-China relationship. Meanwhile, making a study of Japan'sODA to China can enrich, expand and deepen the theory and research of internationalpolitics. Japanese government adopted the policy of providing ODA to China from December1979. Within the past more than two decades, Japan's ODA to China, as an important symboland the main means of cooperation of Japan-China friendly neighborhood, has become one ofthe most important part in Japan-China relations. By the end of 2000, Japan has become thefirst largest developed country to provide ODA to China. By then, the total sum of Japan'sODA to China has come up to nearly 6000 billions Japanese yen equivalent to 50 billions USdollars according to the world average foreign exchange rate in 2000, in which the loan inyen came up to 2650 billions, the energy loan 2400 billion yen, unpaid loan and China's trade surplus around 200-300 billions yen. The total sum of Japan's loan accounts for 41.91 percent of the foreign loans to China with the first position, Germany follows Japan with 9.86 percent as the second largest one while the U.S.A ranks itself the twelfth one with 0.1 percent. With China as one of the few largest countries receiving Japan's ODA, Japan's loans to China in Japanese yen constitute the second position with 11 percent in its total foreign loans. Therefore, the study of Japan's ODA, especially its ODA to China is absolutely an important research subject involving such academic fields as Japanese study, especially Japan's politics, foreign affairs, foreign policy and its world strategy as well as Japan-China relations and China's foreign policy toward Japan. Since the early of 1990s, Japanese government has begun to readjust its policy toward ODA by a big margin or even radically. In June 1992, Japanese cabinet enacted and published "The Principles for GDA" in which "The Four Principles for ODA" were put forward. From these principles, we can make sure that Japan has made a big readjustment of some basic ideas and policies of its ODA having practiced after World War Ⅱ. We can also find thatJapanese government has added some strict political conditions and non-economic standardsto ODA and highlighted its political and strategic intentions. In 1994, Japan for the first timelaunched sanctions to freeze its ODA programs to China by cooking up an excuse of China'snuclear tests. The event made the well-practicing ODA become an important issue to triggerthe political and diplomatic conflicts between Japan and China, thus Japan's ODA to Chinahas become a touchstone and barometer of China-Japan relationship. It's evident that Japanese government attempts to clarify its strategic intentions andimpose its impact on China by making a change and adjustment of ODA to China. As a result,Japan's adjustment of its policy toward ODA not only reflects the changes of its officialpolicy toward China and its diplomatic strategy, but also will produce potential impacts not tobe ignored on future Japan-China relations and the international relations in the Asian-Pacificregion at large. As one of the China's top leaders, Zhu Rongji, the Premier for the first timeformally spoke of Japan's ODA to China in public during his state visit to Tokyo, whichsuggests that Chinese government pays high importance to Japan's ODA and treats it as amajor issue to have much bearing on the sound development of the future Japan-China relationship. So making a study of Japan's policy toward ODA and the tendency of its foreign strategy bears such practical importance that we can provide some background materials, policy analysis, countermoves and foreign strategy for our government when making foreign policy toward Japan. In March 2002, Japanese government decided to make a radical adjustment of its policy toward ODA to China, and began to cut down on its ODA to China from 2001, when Japan's ODA to China dropped by 17 percent. After 2001, Japan would annually make an examination and ratification of its ODA to China. As a result, Japan's ODA to China which has maintained a growing momentum during the last two decades appeared to drop substantially for the first time, and is likely to continue dropping year by year in the future. The radical change and tendency of Japan's ODA to China is a clear sign suggesting that Japanese government has made a new-round readjustment of its policy and strategytoward China. This dissertation is intended to make a profound exploration and analyses of thefollowing questions. 1. What are the main reasons for Japan's adjustment in its policy and strategy toward ODA in the internal and external aspects? 2. What are the international backgrounds for this policy adjustment? Is the adjustment based on Japanese domestic realpolitik or its long-run consideration about international strategy? 3. What tendency in Japanese domestic politics does the ODA policy adjustment reflect? What kind of mentalities about China does the adjustment reflect? Does it indicate that Japan will make a radical change of its current foreign strategy and policy toward China? 4. What kind of potential and in-depth impacts will the policy adjustment have on the ongoing relationship between China and Japan in the 21th century? What impacts will it have on the China-U.S-Japan triangle and the international pattern in the Asian-Pacific region? 5. How will Chinese government define Japan's position in its foreign chessboard and lay down its foreign strategy toward Japan in accordance with its national interests by drawing on the historical experience? How to make a sound understanding of the role of Japan's ODA in China's modernization? What kind of positive and effective countermoves should China take?