毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想研究

2019-01-17 08:21:00

inner party 党内 党内斗争 struggles









中文题名毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想研究

 





副题名 





外文题名 





论文作者朱修国   





导师赵云献   





学科专业党的学说与党的建设   





研究领域\研究方向 





学位级别博士 





学位授予单位中共中央党校   





学位授予日期2003   





论文页码总数141页   





关键词毛泽东思想  党内矛盾  党内斗争  毛泽东   





馆藏号BSLW

/2003

/A84

/7 





【中文摘要】

    毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想,是毛泽东把马克思列宁主义关于党的建设的理论创造性地运用于中国共产党建设的实践,以其卓越超群的智慧和才能,吸收中国传统文化的精华,在总结党内斗争经验教训的基础上形成的关于正确认识和处理党内的意见分歧和对立的一系列思想的总和。本文从其历史发展、根据、特点、体系、历史评价五个方面对这一思想进行深入、系统的研究。
   第一章概述毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想形成、成熟和继续发展的三个阶段。从建党初期到古田会议,可以看作是逐渐形成阶段。其主要标志,是毛泽东明确提出了“思想建党”的思想,强调要开展思想教育,用批评的方法纠正党内的各种错误思想。此后,毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想继续发展,到延安整风时期,形成了正确认识和处理党内矛盾党内斗争的一系列方针、原则、方式和方法。整风方式的成功运用,标志着毛泽东这一思想达到了成熟。延安整风以后的历史时期,可以看作是毛泽东这方面思想的继续发展阶段。当然,在这一阶段,既有顺利前进的时期,也有曲折发展的时期。
   第二章分析毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想的理论依据、历史依据和客观依据。理论依据是指马克思主义经典作家关于正确认识和处理党内矛盾党内斗争的一系列论述。历史依据包括两方面,一是我们党历史上的,既继承了我们党勇于开展党内斗争的传统,又吸取了以往“残酷斗争,无情打击”的教训;二是中国历史上的,即传统文化中的精华部分。客观依据体现在五个方面:纠正党内错误思想的需要,反对本本主义、经验主义的需要,反对右倾机会主义的需要,反对“左”倾冒险主义的需要,反对党内资产阶级思想的需要。
   第三章分析毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想的特点。继承性体现在四个方面:毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想与马克思主义党内斗争理论诞生于同一时代背景;毛泽东把马克思主义党内斗争理论运用于中国革命的实际;总结了国际共产主义运动党内斗争的历史经验;形成了一个与马克思主义经典作家有关论述一脉相承的党内矛盾党内斗争思想体系。创造性体现在四个方面:与中国共产党人探索中国革命正确道路的历程紧密联系在一起;把思想建设作为加强党的建设的首要任务;提出了正确处理党内矛盾和正确区别、处理人民内部矛盾的原理;在正确认识和处理党内矛盾的一系列问题上丰富和发展了马克思主义党学。党内矛盾党内斗争的复杂性体现在三个方面:党内矛盾和党外矛盾交织在一起;敌我矛盾和人民内部矛盾交织在一起;党内矛盾与党际矛盾交织在一起。本人鲜明的个性特征和人格魅力体现在四个方面:勇于斗争,善于斗争;从教育入手,改造人的思想;严于律己,宽于待人;不屈不挠,愈挫愈奋。
   第四章阐述毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想的理论体系。关于党内矛盾党内斗争的必然性及其根源,毛泽东指出,党内不同思想的对立和斗争是经常发生的,这是社会的阶级矛盾和新旧事物的矛盾在党内的反映,要勇于承认党内矛盾党内斗争。关于党内斗争的必要性,他强调,必须在党内开展积极的思想斗争,共产党的哲学就是斗争哲学,党只有在不断同自身内部的错误思想作斗争的过程中才能发展起来;要把党内斗争建立在马克思列宁主义原则基础之上,同时注意在执政党内开展意识形态领域的斗争。关于党内斗争的原则,他提出,要采取唯物辩证的思想方法,坚持“两条战线斗争”的原则;并认为,我们的党已经从两条战线斗争中巩固和壮大起来。关于党内斗争的方法,他强调,批评与自我批评是开展党内斗争的有力武器;有无认真的自我批评,也是我们和其他政党互相区别的显著的标志之一。关于如何进行批评,他强调,批评应该是严正的、尖锐的,但又应该是诚恳的、坦白的、与人为善的;并且指出,为了进行正确的批评,必须充分发扬党内民主,执政党也要开展认真的批评与自我批评。关于党内斗争的方针,指出,正确的方针应该是“惩前毖后,治病救人”。对以前的错误的一定要揭发,不讲情面;要以科学的态度批判分析过去的东西;思想批判从严,组织处理从宽。对犯错误的同志要一看二帮;揭发错误,批判缺点的目的完全是为了救人,而不是为了把人整死;开展党内斗争,要从团结的愿望出发,经过批评或者斗争,在新的基础上团结起来。关于党内斗争的方式,指出,“整风”是正确处理党内矛盾和党内斗争的一种好形式,其内容是反对主观主义、宗派主义和党八股;其实质,是一次普遍的马克思主义学习运动、一次通过批评与自我批评进行自我教育的运动和一次挽救犯错误干部的运动。
   第五章对毛泽东党内矛盾和党内斗争思想作了历史评价。其理论意义是:进一步阐明了无产阶级政党党内斗争的性质;创立了“惩前毖后,治病救人”的基本方针;找到了“整风”这一好形式。其历史意义是:确保全党高度统一,夺取新民主主义革命的胜利;捍卫了马克思列宁主义的纯洁性;对正确处理人民内部矛盾具有重要指导意义;晚年在党内斗争问题上“左”的教训对后人具有借鉴作用。其现实意义是:在新的历史条件下,运用毛泽东这一思想解决党内存在的思想不纯的问题,始终保持党的先进性;加强党风廉政建设和反腐败斗争,巩固党的执政地位;以毛泽东这一思想为指导,创造具有时代特点的解决党内矛盾的新形式。











【外文摘要】

 Abstract
   Mao zedong's Inner-party Contradiction and Struggle Thought is the sum of a series of thoughts that are about correctly recognizing and dealing with inner-party disagreement and opposition. It is formed on the basis of Marxism-Leninism's inner-party contradiction and struggle theory being used creatively in the practice of CPC's building, of assimilating Chinese ancient culture heritage with his outstanding intelligence and talent, and of summing up the experience and lessons of inner-party struggles. This thesis analyses and researches the thought on five respects, which are history developing, basis, characteristic, theory system and historical appraisal.
   Chapter One gives a brief account of three phases of forming, maturing and developing. The period from the birth of the Party to the Gutian Conference is the first phase, whose main sign is Mao's thought of building party from the ideological basis being put forward. Afterwards, the thought continues to develop. Until Yanan period, the Party has formed the guiding principle, pattern, and method of the inner-party struggles. The Yanan Rectification is the sign of maturity of Mao's Inner-Party Contradiction and Straggle Thought. Afterwards, the thought continuously develops. In this phase, there are not only successes but also setbacks.
   Chapter two analyses the theory, history and objective bases of Mao's Inner-party Contradiction and Struggle Thought. The theory basis is Marxism on how to correctly recognize and deal with inner-party contradictions and struggles. The history basis includes two parts: one is about the experiences and lessons in the Party's history; the other is about the cream of our national culture in the history. The objective basis reflects in five aspects: the needs of correcting inner-party wrong thinking, of combating bookishness and experientialism, of combating Right Opportunism, of combating"Left"Adventurism, and of combating inner-party bourgeois ideas.
   Chapter three analyses the characteristics of the Thought. The inheritance nature means Mao forms a thought system that is the direct successor of the thoughts of the classic writers by applying Marxism to Chinese revolution. The creative nature embodies in four parts: it is united tightly with the course of the CPC probing the correct road of Chinese revolution; it regards ideological building as the most important task of the Party's construction; it puts forwards the principle of correctly dealing with inner-party contradictions and the contradictions among the people; and it enriches Marxism-Leninism in all parts. The complexity of the inner-party contradictions and struggles reflects in three respects: inner-party contradictions interwoven with outer-party contradictions; contradictions between ourselves and the enemies interwoven with contradictions among the people; inner-party contradictions interwoven with inter-party contradictions. The personal characteristic and charm embody in three aspects: struggling bravely and skillfully, transforming man's ideology by education; strictly binding himself but magnanimously treating others; more setbacks, more courage.
   Chapter four expounds the theory system of the Thought. On the necessity and the origin of inner-party contradictions and struggles, Mao says that inner-party contradictions and struggles occur frequently, which are the reflections of the class contradictions and contradictions between the new and the old, and that we ought to admit them. He stresses that ideological struggles should be carried out inside the Party, and that the Party's philosophy is that of struggling, and the Party can't make progress unless she struggles with wrong thinking uninterruptedly. He says, inner-party struggles should be laid on the base of Marxism-Leninism principles, and struggles in the realm of ideology should be carried out in the ruling party. He suggests that materialist dialectics method of thinking and the principle of"struggling on two fronts"should be used. He considers that the Party has been strengthened in the struggles of two fronts. He says that criticism and self-criticism are the powerful weapons in the inner-party struggles, and if there is or not serious self-criticism is the marked sign which differs our party from the others. He stresses that criticism should be serious, sharp-pointed, and sincere, honest, well-meaning. He says, in order to have correct criticism, inner-party democracy should be developed and the ruling party should carry out serious criticism and self-criticism. On the guiding principle of the inner-party struggles, he says that the correct principle should be"learning from past mistakes to avoid future ones, and curing the sickness to save the patient"The past mistakes must be exposed mercilessly; the scientific attitude should be adopted in analyzing past things; ideological criticism should be sternly, but organic handling should be leniently; help should be given to the comrades who have had mistakes; the aim of exposing mistakes and criticizing shortcomings is to save the patients, but not to punish them; in the inner-party struggles, we should start from the wish of unity, through criticism or struggles, and unite on the new base. On the pattern of the inner-party struggles, he says Rectification is a good form to deal with inner-party contradictions and struggles correctly, whose contents are opposing subjectivism, sectarianism and Party jargon; and it is a movement of studying Marxism universally, of being self-educated by criticism and self-criticism, and of saving cadres who have made mistakes.
   Chapter five makes a historical appraisal on the Thought. Its theoretical significance is: further expounding the substance of inner-party struggles of the proletariat party; establishing the basic principle of"learning from past mistakes to avoid future ones, and curing the sickness to save the patient"; finding the good pattern of Rectification to carry out inner-party struggles. Its historic significance is: uniting the whole party into a militant collective and gaining the triumph of New Democratic Revolution; protecting the purity of Marxism-Leninism; dealing with contradictions among the people correctly; giving the lessons of the inner-party struggles launched in his later years to call descendants for deep thought. Its practical significance is: under the new historic condition, using the thought to resolve the inner-party problem of ideology and to build the Party's style and the honest and clean government, and to create new forms with modern characteristics in dealing with inner-party contradictions and struggles.