猪“瘦肉精”检测方法的比较和应用/Contrast and Application of Detecting Clenbuterol-HCl Methods

2018-11-14 05:47:13

检测 method HCl Clenbuterol 瘦肉精



随着我国社会经济的发展和人民生活水平的不断提高,人们对肉、蛋、奶等动物性产品的消费量逐步增加,畜禽生产规模和产品产量迅速增长。但由于生产中大量使用农药和兽药等产品,使得蔬菜、水果、茶叶等植物产品中的农药残留、动物产品的兽药残留和其他有毒有害物质超标导致的食物中毒事件时有发生,食品安全问题越来越成为社会广泛关注的焦点。在养猪生产中,最突出的问题就是兽药残留对人类健康的危害,其中“瘦肉精”残留无疑是目前最为严重而广泛的问题。
“瘦肉精”(盐酸克伦特罗)最初作为支气管扩张剂应用于人类临床医学,当人们发现其具有促进畜禽脂肪分解,提高胴体瘦肉率的作用后又被作为添加剂广泛应用于动物饲料生产中。但是,人类在食用了饲喂“瘦肉精”的动物产品后常表现出一系列的中毒症状,给人们的生命安全造成了严重威胁。因此,我国和世界许多国家都已明令禁止在饲料中使用克伦特罗来增加动物的瘦肉率。
目前,我国已制订了相关的检测“瘦肉精”的法规和标准,并对非法使用“瘦肉精”的行为进行严厉打击,但“瘦肉精”检测阳性和中毒事件仍时有发生。从源头上控制“瘦肉精”的使用,并对生猪宰前或猪肉产品和饲料进行“瘦肉精”强制检验显得尤为重要。目前使用的检测方法主要是液相色谱(HPLC)、气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)和酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA),但这类方法不适于现场快速检测。近年来用于快速检测的胶体金法(快速检测试纸)的研究进展较快,但多个厂家生产的快速检测试纸条质量参差不齐,对基层进行有效准确地“瘦肉精”检测产生了一定的影响。筛选一种稳定、准确、快速的适合基层普查筛检用的试纸条并进行推广应用十分重要。
本研究在珠海市金湾区进行了多种对比试验,通过对大连普瑞康、上海赛群、杭州迪恩三种快速检测试纸和高效液相色谱法(HPLC)、气相色谱质-谱法(GC-MS)、酶联免疫分析法(ELISA)等对比实验,结果显示:(1)HPLC、GC-MS和ELISA法分析灵敏,定量准确;大连普瑞康快速检测试纸在三个品牌的产品中准确度最高。(2)HPLC、GC-MS和酶ELISA等方法由于设备昂贵或操作复杂、检测时间长、不便现场及时检测,可作为确证法使用;而大连普瑞康生物技术有限公司生产的盐酸克伦特罗快速检测试纸特异性和敏感性较高,可真正实现现场操作,不受场地、人员限制,可作为饲养场、生猪批发市场、屠宰场、农贸市场、超市等筛查盐酸克伦特罗的重要手段。(3)建立以胶体金法(快速检测试纸条)为主而酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)为辅的“筛选法”和液相色谱(HPLC)、气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)为“确证法”的多方法相结合的残留检测体系很有必要,这一体系将是从源头真正扼制“瘦肉精”问题的有效手段。



Along with the development of society economy and the people’s living level, the consumption and yield of animal origin foodstuffs, such as meat, egg and milk, was stepping up rapidly. In latest years, the food poisoning events happened occasionally because the pesticide and veterinary drug were slathered in animal production. Thereinto the Clenbuterol-HCl residues had become the most serious in pig production. It had brought the worldwide attention.
Clenbuterol-HCl was a synthetic drug, which was used to treated asthma or beast bronchus as bronchia expending drug in human clinic medicine firstly. But later, it was widely used in animal feed as additives because it can improve the rate of lean meat in animal production. But it had result in a series of poisoning symptom when people eat the meat included the Clenbuterol-HCl. So China and other country had forbidden the Clenbuterol-HCl to feed animal as additive.
At present, our country had draw the correlative law and criterion for detecting Clenbuterol-HCl, but in fact, the events of masculine testing Clenbuterol-HCl in pig or meat and feed, and food poisoning had happened occasionally. Therefore, detection and restrict using the Clenbuterol-HCl in headstream become more important.
Now the main method to detect Clenbuterol-HCl are high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), GC-MS, ELISA and rapid test paper. The former three methods are not unfit for the field and rapid test. The later method developed very fast in latest few years, but the quality of the rapid test paper produced by several factory was uneven. So the detecting effect was affected a certain extent.
The aim to find a rapid and accuracy method of detecting Clenbuterol-HCl, this study contrast several methods. The results showed that:
(1) HPLC, GC-MS and ELISA are reproducible and sensitive to Clenbuterol-HCl, the rapid test paper produced by DaLian Puruikang company among three is the most correct and exact method.
(2) The former three methods need valuable equipments, complicated operation, long time detection, and can’t test in time, thus they suit to use as identified method. The rapid test paper produced by DaLian Puruikang Company is sensitive and accuracy, it can test in time, don’t restrict by site, people, so it can use as a screening method in pig farm, market, slaughterhouse, etc.
(3) It is necessary to built up a detection system, which combines the screen method and the determination method. The rapid test paper detection could as a screening method, and the HPLC, GC-MS and ELISA detection could as determination method. This system will be the effective measure to control Clenbuterol-HCl from origin in animal production.