丸山真男的近代化思想研究/the modernization theory of Masao Maruyama

2018-11-01 00:32:11

theory 日本 modernization Japan 近代化



近代化理论一直是战后日本学界的一个中心课题。 丸山真男作为日本战中和战后的著名的思想家和政治学家,其关于近代化理论的思考和著述在理论界具有里程碑式的意义。本文就其近代化的理论中的诸多侧面进行了梳理和研究,试图对其近代化理论本身以及其思想方式有一个宏观性的认识。
按照丸山真男的观点,日本的近代思想的开端不是来自于西方,也不是来自于儒家文化,而是日本固有的原生文化形态上的自我的发展,最早可以追溯江户时代的徂徕学中的现代性中。也就是说他将思想的近代化同思想方式的近代化区别开来。但是,由于近代的西方列强的压力,日本进入了一个快速的近代化时期。因此日本的近代不是一个均质的发展的过程。其基本的特征是前近代的因素和后近代的因素交织在一起所构成的二元特征。他认为,日本近代缺乏一个统一的基础支撑,换言之就是文化主体性的缺乏。相互独立而且又不均衡的各个领域的近代化过程只能借助于“天皇”之一统合象征而“虚假”地统合起来。从而在二战之后又陷入了分裂和无组织的状态。日本的近代化思想的发展缺乏一条贯彻始终的主线的问题便是其具体的体现。
而作为近代国家建立的核心话语的近代民族主义的发展是理解日本的近代的一个重要维度。日本的民族主义内在的思维模式是日本近代结构特征的重要考量维度。其中作为战后丸山主要的研究内容的天皇制度的思想层面的研究主要是强调了日本的法西斯制度的必然性和特殊性。即建立在日本的近代化矛盾特征上的“无责任体系”以及“压力转移体系”是不同于希特勒的法西斯制度体系的,而同时走向法西斯道路也是植根于日本的近代化特点之上的必然。
本文认为,丸山真男的近代化思想是一个建构和批判的双向过程。这首先根源于他的问题意识的结构性特征。就说,他的问题意识中始终存在着建构日本近代的主体性与批判近代主体性缺失的两面。所以说,主体性的建构一直是他的工作中的一个重要的努力方向。



The modernization theory is one of the core topics among the political scientists .Masao Maruyama is one of the most famous scholars after the Second World War in Japan. His theory about Japanese modernization is very important for us to understand Japan. The paper is supposed to make an overview about the modernization theory about him, and also be wanted to make some conclusions for his theory.
According to Maruyama, the modern thought of Japan did not come from the western world or the Confucianism. He insists that the modernization of Japanese thoughts was from the Edo period. But with the pressure of western countries, Japan made a dramatic change to the modern world. The modernization of Japan is not a balanced process. It is composed both with the ex-modern aspect and post-modern aspect. Thusly, the modernization process does not have one foundation. The separated and unbalanced parts of the modernization can not be gathered without the Emperor of Japan. So the lack of main clue in the modernization is the biggest problem for Japan.
And the premise of the nation-state is the foundation process of the Japanese nation. So the theory of the nationalism in Japanese modernization is an important part in his modernization theory. As for Maruyama, the Japanese fascism is an inevitable and unique one. It is unique because it is totally different from the German fascism in the system. It is inevitable because it builds on the characteristics of the Japanese modernization which is unbalanced.
I insist that the modernization theory of him have conflicts in it. There are bidirectional processes in his theory. One is to support the idea that Japan have self-existed modernizations. But at the same time, he also want to tell us that Japan is not the perfect one compared with the ideal model (the western model). These conflicts come from the problems which attracted him. And we can see most of his work is to build a subject existence for the modernization of Japan.