《去中心化的个人媒体——论个人媒体的社会文化意义》/De-centeral personal media in terms of its social cult

2018-10-27 16:40:01

social media personal 个人 媒体



出现于二十世纪末的个人媒体,在短短几年内被互联网用户迅速接受,在全球范围内以各种形式飞速发展起来。个人媒体是以互联网为平台,以博客Blog、标签Tag、聚合咨询RSS、维基wiki、点对点技术P2P等的应用为核心的个人对个人的多种信息传播形式。
个人媒体对于传统媒体最大的挑战就在于它是一种开放的个人意见的表达,个人生产信息,个人传播信息,个人选择接受怎样的信息。当大众媒介转换成去中心化的传播网络时,发送者变成了接收者,生产者变成了消费者,统治者变成了被统治者。另外,个人媒体的出现更新了互联网用户之间的人际传播和人际交往方式,从人与内容的关系到人与人的关系个人媒体的核心指向。个人以内容为纽带,延伸出自己在网络社会中的关系。个人媒体始终处于一种开放的互动状态之中。
同时,点对点P2P技术的兴起逐渐改变了互联网用户观看电影、收看电视节目、购买唱片、以及阅读的习惯。市民新闻网站、维基百科的出现,颠覆了传统,挑战了权威。社会化网络,通过用户自身贡献的内容,以用户的兴趣和体验为线索,把单个的用户联系起来,发展出全新的社会关系。信息的极大丰富更延展了用户的兴趣,这无形中也导致了受众从大众化向小众化发展的趋势,也加速了大众文化碎裂成为无数文化碎片。个人媒体强调“保留部分权力”,无论是技术本身还是个人媒体内容的开放,都是致力于让任何创造性的作品都有机会被更多的人分享和再创造。
个人媒体中,信息不再按照传统的方式生产、传播,个人的意志逐渐代替那些高高在上的使命感、崇高感和悲剧感。而对于个人媒体的参与者来说,社会约束消失了,角色期待消失了,个人媒体的出现促成了个体的不稳定身份,促成了个体多重身份形成的连续过程。个人媒体中的主体也在这个过程中,也显示出对自身认同不稳定的去中心化趋势。
个人媒体促进了文化的多元化、差异化、去中心化,也促进了次文化中意见领袖的形成。个体之间在这样的互动里进一步交流、相互产生影响,形成全新的社会关系。个人的力量也在这互动中几何倍数的增长起来,个人的声音扩散出去,相互激荡,最终形成群体的力量。个人媒体也改变了传统的人际交往方式,志趣相投的陌生人更加容易互相“辨认”出来。这层关系也会延伸到现实生活之中,延伸到我们对于自我和现实世界的认识。人们对于自我和世界的理解也因为这交流不断变化,个人媒体丰富了自我的社会性建构,或者说,为人们认识自我和社会提供了全新的可能性。



Personal media, appeared in the late 20th century, has been rapidly accepted by Internet users of various forms together globally in a few short years. On the Internet as a platform, personal media is the person-to-person transmission of various forms such as blog, Tag, RSS, wiki, and P2P technology, etc.
The greatest challenge from personal media VS traditional media lies in the fact that it is an open expression of views by individuals. When the mass media convert to de-center transmission network, senders become receivers, producers turn into consumers. In addition, personal media updated Internet users in terms of interpersonal communication and interpersonal relationships. Linked by content, people extended his own network of social relations on the Internet. Personal media has always been in an open interaction status.
Meanwhile, P2P gradually change habits of the Internet users to watch movies, television programs, and reading. The emergence of citizen journalism portal and Wikipedia, subvert the traditional authority. Through the users’ own contribution as to the user's interest and experience for clues, SNS link individual user to develop new social relationships. Abundant information extended user interest, which will also lead to alternative culture development trend. Personal media also stressed that "creative commons," which is committed to making any creative works shared and re-created by more people, regardless of the technology itself or media content.
Information is no longer in the traditional way of production and spread, while individual ideology gradually replaces those grand senses of mission, tragedy and history. As for personal media players, the social constraints disappeared, role expectations vanished. The emergence of personal media contributed to the instability of individual identity. The individual also show de-center self-identity in the process.
Personal media accelerate cultural diversity, de-center, and also promote the opinion leaders in the subculture. Individual voices speak out, interact, ultimately form the mass power. Like-minded strangers more easily "identify" out each other, which range to the cognition of the real life, real world and self-awareness. Personal media rich self-social structure, or, provide new possibilities of self-awareness and social comprehension.