控制沟通:论美国政府的媒体宣传/Control the communication

2018-10-15 18:43:08

本文 news 媒体 宣传 美国政府



本文聚焦美国政府的媒体宣传,指的是美国政府利用媒体传播一定的观念以影响人们的思想和行动的社会行为,其中美国政府指的是美国联邦政府中的行政分支。与以往相关研究不同的是,本文把研究对象放在了“国家-社会”这一社会科学研究经典分析框架中。美国政府媒体宣传的背后反映了国家想要利用媒体来影响和控制社会,追求和维护政府的权威性和合法性,达到其对内和对外的政治目的。媒体在本文中被视为现代社会重要的沟通方式和渠道,因此,控制媒体就是控制社会的沟通方式。
本文的另一个创新点是用“结构-行为”这对关系来探讨美国政府是如何利用媒体宣传的。本文中所探讨的结构既包含了美国整个宏观的政治结构,也包括了美国政府媒体宣传行为中的政府传播结构和媒体行业自身的结构。研究结构的目的是为了探讨什么样的结构导致了如今美国政府如此这般的媒体宣传行为,什么样的结构对这样的宣传行为产生了制约作用。结构与行为是互相产生和互相作用的。在本文的第三部分,笔者对美国政府在各种情境中的行为策略进行了考察,并且对每种策略都进行了案例分析。
本论文的第四部分探讨了宣传与美国整个政治经济宏观制度的关系,认为在美国这样的政治体制中,美国政府的宣传行为会受到各方面的制约,在国家层面上政府会面临国会的立法制约;在社会层面上,会面临新闻媒体、社会组织和公共舆论的制约,后者的制约是软性的,但比前者更能发挥作用。美国政府之所以能够利用媒体为其宣传有其宏观制度的原因。金钱政治以及美国政府对媒体产业的调控使得美国政府的媒体宣传成为可能并且使得美国政府与媒体集团的关系越来越密切。美国政府的媒体宣传中存在着强制性与非强制性两种结构。不同的结构,不同的情境,行为也不一样。在这种结构与行为之下,本文还深入探讨了美国政府与媒体的互动关系,这种关系表现为依赖、影响、控制、监督和共享。最后,本文认为美国的政治沟通机制是有限度地开放的,而且是不平等的,它压制和歪曲了信息流通,销蚀了媒体的公共性和批判性,时时刻刻影响着美国的民主政治。



This paper is focused on propaganda and media publicity of the executive branch of U.S. government. In the United States, in spite of the First Amendment to the Constitution, which provides that “Congress shall make no law …abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press,” presidents and their staffs also attempt to manipulate the substance and tenor of news, in order to influence the people’s thoughts and behavior. This research made an exploration from the vantage point of state-society relationship, a classic perspective in modern social sciences, illuminating that the state intends to control society by way of managing the flow of news to achieve objectives.
A fundamental issue, the determination of the relationship between structure and action is used as an analytical key to explain how the executive branch manipulates the news. Not only Constitutional politics in the States was concerned, but media and communication systems were also examined. According to the theory of Structuration, the structure, which includes both rules and resources, offers a pattern for action, but has no reality outside of action itself. This paper examines the problems involved in the attempt to account for, in theoretical and empirical terms, the interaction between structure and action within American political and economical structure, especially what kind of context for action those structures provide and what kind of structures those actions generate.
This paper described the "propaganda model" of media behavior and performance, with roots in political and economical system. It is clear that there are some structural constraints that prevent the government propaganda. However, U.S. government can use PR techniques to shape public discussion and public opinion. Such maneuvers infiltrate American news system and challenge the belief in press freedom. Consequently, controlling the flow of news by government undermine the population's ability to think critically about social events and pose a threat to democracy.