关于中日航线港口使费成本控制的研究/Research on the cost control of port charges of Sino-Japan lin

2018-10-13 01:36:38

cost line Japan Sino 使费



中文摘要
在激烈的市场竞争环境中,几乎所有的企业都希望借助自身较低的成本来获得竞争上的优势。本文针对中日集装箱班轮航线,研究如何在经营中合理控制港口使费成本,帮助船公司获得竞争中的成本优势。
中日航线对客户的争夺已突出体现在运价上的竞争,中日航线的海运价不仅出现了零运价,甚至还出现了负运价。在运价无法领先的情况下,成本上的差异将决定中日航线船公司竞争的胜负。港口使费成本一直是中日航线班轮公司最大的成本项,该项成本的支出已经占到总成本支出的一半以上。而港口使费成本对比其他成本项比如燃油成本、船舶固定成本而言又具有可控性的特点。通过正常的手段来控制港口使费成本,对于经营中日航线的班轮公司而言已不足以在日益激烈的市场竞争中生存,必须要针对中日航线的经营特点和港口收费模式,采取特殊的、有针对性的控制手段。目前如何有效控制中日航线港口使费成本的研究工作尚处于起步阶段。
本文从中国及日本港口使费成本结构分析入手,根据两国港口不同的收费模式及中日航线的经营特点,运用风险分析的手段,研究得出结论:经营中日航线必须选择合适的船舶;配备合格的船长使船舶能够在日本港口自引进出港并节省拖轮;必须合理安排班期以避开节假日和夜班的附加费;必须合理配载以避免翻倒舱及维持箱体平衡;同时两国政府虽然规定了各自港口收费的标准,但船公司必须利用各种手段通过谈判取得港方在费收上的优惠。此外由于即使采取了切实有效的控制手段,仍无法避免高昂的港口使费成本,本文通过研究得出结论:适当的转变经营模式比如采取滚装船的经营模式以及收取集装箱码头操作费(THC)来覆盖一部分装卸成本也是控制中日航线港口使费成本的行之有效的方法。


关键词:港口使费 中日航线 自引节拖 风险分析



Abstract
Driven by fierce market competition, most of companies are trying to take an upper hand over their competitors by minimizing their cost. Here Aiming at Sino-Japan container Line to study how the shipping companies effectively control the cost of Port Charges during the daily management, thus enabling the companies to possess a cost advantage in the competition.

Currently, Ocean freight is the major competitive aspect in the Sino-Japan line, and the competition on the Sino-Japan line is turning white-hot that all China export ocean freight can not even cover the cost which means negative freight even appeared in the marketing. Hence, the diversity on the cost will be the weapon of victory or defect under current critical situation. Port Charges is the highest cost among various operational costs on the Sino-Japan line, constituting more than half of their total cost. Comparing with other cost, like fuel cost and vessel cost, Port Charges is controllable and managerial. However, common Port Charges control method has been insufficient for shipping companies running Sino-Japan line to survive in the increasingly fierce market competition, therefore, some special means have to be adopted in the light of management and charge collection features on the line. It’s only at the beginning how to effectively control Port Charges cost.

The essay has embarked from the structure of Port Charges cost in both China and Japan, in terms of different collecting pattern and management specialty, by using risk analysis, following conclusion is deducted: To manage Sino-Japan line well, the shipping companies should choose suitable vessels and appoint qualified captains, thus self-piloting in and out of Japanese port can be realized and towage can be saved. And a good vessel schedule is also indispensable to reducing additional cost in holidays and night shift and wise storage planning can avoid later Re-store. Furthermore, in spite of the rule of charge set by the government, shipping companies can seek a way to negotiate discount of charge with the port. In addition, shifting the mode of management and levying THC are also effective ways to cover part of the Port Chargess and control the cost on the Sino-Japan line.


Key words: Port Chargess, Sino-Japan line, self-pilot and towage saving, risk analysis