日本对中国直接投资的变化与影响——基于东亚国际经济关系的考察/the Change and Influence of the FDI of Japan in

2018-10-06 05:23:49

日本 Chapter China FDI Japan



毫无疑问,日本对外投资已经并正在给世界经济带来深刻的影响。所以,日本对外投资的动向始终受到世界各国的关注。同样毫无疑问且受到密切关注的是,中国经济的快速发展给世界提供了最为广阔和最为有利的投资场所,中国已经成为世界上吸引外资最多的国家。因此,近年来日本对中国直接投资的显著变化无疑成为世人关注的亮点。而且,联系到中日之间政治上的历史隔阂和现实矛盾,以及两国所在的东亚地区几十年来在经济方面的辉煌表现,这些因素无疑又增加了上述关注的程度。因此,我们不难理解,研究日本对中国的直接投资不仅在中国而且在世界其它国家都具有十分重要的意义。尤其对中国来说,在中日经济状况和经济关系已经发生深刻变化的现实下,正确地认识和有效地利用日本投资不仅在理论上而且在实践上都极具价值。
上述见解在作者对日本的访问和考察中得到了加强。在对日本官方的访问中,作者注意到,日本政府十分重视中日经济的相互依赖性,并且强调日本投资在这种相互依赖性中的作用。在对日本企业的考察中,作者认识到,日本的投资不仅可以给予中国资金和技术,而且可以给予中国很多方面的其它国家投资不能替代的内容。日本对中国的投资已经成为一个任何力量都无法阻止的潮流,它不仅有利于中国而且有利于日本,它的变化不仅深刻地影响着中国和日本的经济关系,而且深刻地影响着整个东亚的经济关系。所以,在世界经济一体化和地区经济集团化的现状下,只有立足于整个东亚进行思考,才能为中国找到针对日本投资的最优策略,使之为中国经济发展带来最大的利益。
本文的研究基于这样的思路。首先从日本对中国直接投资变化的描述开始,以说明这种变化所表现出来的具体状况和长期趋势。在此基础上研究这种状况和趋势的动因,对此本文将从中国因素、日本因素和一些国际间的综合因素给以探讨。接下来将是对上述变化带来的影响进行研究,对此本文将采取由内到外的顺序,先是分别研究对日本和对中国的影响,然后研究对中日经济关系的影响,最后是以竞争日本投资为视角研究对中国与东亚其它国家经济关系的影响。立足于前面所有的研究成果,本文的最后是对中国扩大和优化日本投资的策略的再探讨。在此它将体现作者的一个思想,就是强调全面地即从中日两国之间和东亚范围两个方面来分析问题和提出建议。根据此思路,本文的研究将形成一个完整的框架。
本文的结构安排如下。第一章是文献述评。即对本文所依据的经典理论以及各种资料和研究成果给予综述和评价。它包括四部分内容,即经典理论的回顾、日本对中国投资的变化和动因、日本对中国投资变化的影响和中国的策略。本文的研究从第二章正式开始。第二章研究日本对中国直接投资总量的变化,它通过对三个指标的衡量来反映上述总量的真实状况和长期趋势,即日本对中国直接投资总额的变化、中国占日本对外直接投资总额比重的变化、日本占中国外来直接投资总额比重的变化。第三章研究日本对中国直接投资结构的变化,它同样通过三方面的考察来反映真实状况和长期趋势,即产业结构的变化、技术含量结构的变化、地区结构的变化。在前两章的基础上,第四章研究日本对中国直接投资变化的动因,从四个方面给予解释,即日本的促进因素、中国的吸引因素、一个特殊解释——雁行模式在中国内部的重构、其它因素。第五章到第八章都是研究上述变化所带来的影响。第五章研究对日本国内经济的影响,分为产业空心化的担忧、对就业水平的影响、对产业结构的影响和其它影响共四个部分来进行。第六章研究对中国国内经济的影响,分技术与管理、就业与人才、观念与制度、资金补充和融资便利、出口增加和贸易改善共五个部分来进行。第七章是对中日国际经济关系的影响——以贸易为主,从中日贸易的表现、原因分析和实证研究三个方面给予阐述。第八章是对中国与东亚其它国家经济关系的影响,分三部分进行研究,即对日本在东亚其它国家投资的影响、中国和东亚其它国家的引资博弈、东亚经济合作的悖论。第九章是本文的最后一章,即中国策略选择的再探讨,它从内部策略和外部策略两方面给以阐述,从而全面地提出了中国扩大和优化日本投资的策略。




Undoubtedly, the FDI of Japan has brought and is bringing the far-reaching consequence to the global economy. Accordingly every country in the world pay attention to its flow in all time. It is surely paid attention to that the rapid development of China provides the most amplitude and advantageous place for investment in the world, which has been the country possessing of the most FDI. Therefore, the significant change of the FDI of Japan in China certainly becomes the hot point to be concerned about. Meanwhile ,the political gulf and conflict between the two countries in light of history and reality ,and the outstanding achievement of the East Asia where two countries lie ,strengthen the attention . So it is not difficult to understand that the research on the FDI of Japan in China is very important to both China and other countries in the world. Especially for China, regarding the reality that the economic status and relation between China and Japan has changed deeply, it is valuable theoretically and practically to rightly know and effectively use the FDI of Japan.
The opinion as mentioned above was enriched by author’s visit to Japan. In the visit to the authorities , the author noticed that Japanese government stresses the economic interdependence between China and Japan and emphasizes the role the FDI plays in the interdependence. In the visit to the enterprises, the author realized that the FDI of Japan can provide China not only capital and technology but also all kinds of things that the FDI of other countries can’t. The FDI of Japan in china has been a tide that any man-made power can’t prevent, which is advantageous to both China and Japan, the change of which is deeply influencing not only the economic relationship between China and Japan but also the one among the East Asia.. Therefore, with the integration of world economy and the combination of region economy ,only by thinking on the angle of the whole East Asia , can we find the best strategy against the FDI of Japan for China and make it bring the biggest behalf to China.
The research of this paper is based on the following route of thought. It began with depiction of the change of the FDI of Japan in China so as to show the real situation and long-term trend . Then its reason will be discussed in three aspects of China, Japan and the globe. The influence of the change will be next analyzed ,which is done from the influence on the interior economy of Japan and China, to the one on the international economy between two countries, and to the one on the international economy between China and the other countries in the East Asia. At last ,as the conclusion, the strategy to magnify and optimize the FDI of Japan will be give out, which embodies an idea of author ,namely analysis and advice not only from China and Japan but also from the East Asia as whole. According to the thought route the research of this paper will come into a full frame.
This paper is organized as follows. Chapter One is the summarization and evaluation of literature ,which is composed of four aspects, namely the review of classic theory , the changes of the FDI of Japan in China and their reasons, the influences of the changes of the FDI of Japan in China, and China’s strategy. The formal study begins from Chapter Two, which examines the change of the gross of the FDI of Japan in China. For showing the real situation and long-term trend, used are three indexes: the change of sum of the FDI of Japan in China, the one of China’s proportion in the FDI of Japan to the world, and the one of Japan’s proportion in the FDI of China from the world. Chapter Three examines the change of the structure of the FDI of Japan in China, which similarly has three aspects: the change of industry structure, the one of technology content structure and the change of region structure. On the base of the last two chapters, Chapter Four examines the cause of the changes of the FDI of Japan in China, which is composed of the drive factors of Japan, the attraction factors of China, a special explanation—Flying Geese Paradigm being rebuilt in china, and other factors. The influences of the changes mentioned above are researched in from Chapter Five to Chapter Eight. Chapter Five examines the influence on the interior economy of Japan, which consists of four parts, namely the worry about the industry hollowing, the influence on employment level, the influence on industry structure, and other influence. Chapter Six examines the influence on the interior economy of China, which consists of five parts, namely technology and management, employment and human resource, concept and system, complementing capital and facilitating finance, enlarging export an improving trade. Chapter Seven examines the influence on the international relationship between China and Japan—for example of trade, which is composed of three aspects, namely the representation of the trade between China and Japan, cause analysis and demonstration. Chapter Eight examines the influence on the international relationship between China and other countries in the East Asia, which is composed of three parts: the influence on the FDI of Japan in other countries in the East Asia, the game of attracting FDI between China and other countries in the East Asia, the paradox of economic cooperation in the East Asia. Chapter Nine is the last one, namely rediscussion to China’s strategy ,which gives out the strategy of magnifying and optimizing the FDI of Japan in China from interior and exterior.