一个国际化大都市传播的盲区——对于上海市区盲人接受媒体动机,行为及知沟状况分析/The Blind Zone of Cosmopolitan Communica

2018-10-04 12:27:38

society media 媒体 blind 盲人



现代社会是靠“传播”维系组成的,大众传播媒体是现代社会中,民众获取生活信息与外界经验素材最重要的渠道之一。而对于盲人而言,视力的缺陷不仅剥夺了视障受众有效地接触视觉媒体的渠道和获取信息的机会,也使他们丧失了充分利用视觉媒体守望环境的能力,因而增加了他们对于生活周遭和社会环境适应上的困难;此外,生活在一个以视觉媒体为主的传播时代,对影像媒体经验与接受上的不完整和欠缺,也必然会影响视障者的个人认同与人际关系的建立。
也正是出自这个原因,盲人与明眼人比较,对信息的渴求和需要也更为迫切。盲人作为现代社会中的弱势群体,也同样成为媒体的“边缘人”。这便是本文研究创作的始发动机。
西方的一些学者很早就开始投身于这一课题的研究。相反,中国作为世界上盲人数量最多的国家,这一领域的研究却是严重匮乏。在上海市盲人协会大力支持下,笔者以问卷以及访谈的形式,通过对数百位盲人的调查,客观而详细地记录并且分析探讨了上海的盲人的群体特征和已有的社会环境,他们对于媒体的“拥有率”,“接触率”以及对媒体的“使用动机”,并对比了上海的盲人与一般市民的媒体行为差别,由此引发对于信息沟的讨论。与此同时,本文也对盲人与信息媒介之间的互动,以及如何为盲人群体创造出相应的信息传播环境进行了深入地思考,提出了自己的许多看法。




Modern society is held together by “communication” while mass media has turned to be the most important channel of attaining living information and outside experience by the public. However, the blind in the society are not only deprived of effectively contacting visual media and gaining the chance of access to information, but also increasing the difficulties for them to adapt to the surroundings and social environments; Besides, As lives in a communicating era taking visual media as focus, the blind will be affected with the establishment of personal identification and human relationship due to the faultiness and deficiency of media experience.
Also for that reason, the blind, compared with the clear-sighted, have more imminent desire and demand of information. As part of the inferior class in the society, they also become the deserted group on the edge of the society. That’s the initial motivation of the research and study.
Some scholars in modern society have already been devoted to related study. However, China, where the largest number of the blind in the world live, takes little efforts in this field. With the great support from the Association of the Blind in Shanghai, I conducted hundreds of survey of the blind and record as well as analyze the results of the survey, which includes the “possessing ratio”, the “using ratio” and the “using motivation” of them to media. Also the media condition is compared between the blind and the normal citizen in Shanghai in view of media activity and information gap. At the same time, this article also probes into the exchange of the blind and media as well as the communication environment created for the blind at the result of forwarding original ideas.
Keyword: visual disabled, media possessing ratio, media using ratio, media usage motivation, information gap.