“一元”与“二元”的历史变奏——对日本“国家主义”一元政治进程的历史与现实分析/Variations on a Theme of“Centralized Str
In this thesis, the writer defines Japan’s “centralized political process” as “Nation”, which has been “Nationalism” since modern times, mainly aiming at finding out the “innate regulations” of this “political process” in the island country through overviewing the variable process.
In order to make a comprehensive study, the writer doesn't confine “Nationalism” to its modern meaning, but begins at the origins of Japan's history putting the process into “historical structure”,a theoretical frame which had varied automatically under some conditions, to get the hidden general principle from the view of “macro-history”. In addition to this, the writer is also trying to explain the present Japan's “Neo-nationalism” political process intellectually according with history.
This self-variation of Japan's “historicl structure” is a regular activity under some conditions. In the past, when the “dual structure” came to a crisis under attack from the outside great power, the whole society would collect its all resources consciously as well as inadvertently just as mollusk towards “centalized structure” to be under nation's protection. Once the crisis was dissolved successfully, the society would return to its conventional structure (the usual form) that is plural from centralized structure (the unusual form) automatically (sometimes forcibly) and then continued in the innate track. When Japan came to the next crisis, it would go into centralized structure automatically. Even though these variations taking place under different conditions with different contents, they were extremely similar to one another in structure and characteristics. This adjusting way under outside pressure has almost become an effective means of Japan's dissolving crises.
This principle of “structural variations” seems to become Japan's fixed surviving way. In the ancient time, Taika Reformation, the introduction of the Chinese model of state administration, was an attempt to go towards centralized structure which collapsed because of tribesmen politics to extricate itself from predicament in Japan and abroad. After the failure of centralized system, the society was in decentralized state again and the “Military bureaucratic government”was finally formed. In modern times, the introduction of the Western model of state administration under attack of advanced civilization was the process of Japan's centralized politics which disintegrated on account of its crazy expansion. Japan's failure in WWII resulted in the diappearance of “Nationalism” and the establishment of the “post-war socio-political system” the U.S. occupation.
Failure of WWII caused a fact that the mystique of modern nations had vanished into thin air for Japanese people. As a result, “Nationalism” became taboo words and “Nation” was a synonym of “evil” which had lost its former prestige. Thereafter, people were no longer devoted themselves to their nation enthusiastically and faithfully. The entire society was in the mood of “Extra-nationalism” and later it became a post-war political tendency and social agitation.
However, this political taboo was challenged and questioned as Japan's economic success in post-war period. The “New National Structure Movement” in the 1980s was ever promoted after Cold War, in addition to this, the collapse of bubble economy and suffering of “lost 10 years” makes the process “change deeply”. Meanwhile, “Nationalism” is gradually becoming an obvious political trend based on a widespread “popular will” choice and is also a major direction in the future society.
How to interpret this political phenomenon? The writer points out how the “historical structure” was established, operated and regulated logically? The fact that the post-war “socio-political system” being deconstructionalized came to a unprecedented crisis inspired people's desireness of “Nation”. Especially as entreprises which is considered as destiny entity collapsed, the aim people pursue for is naturally towards Nation to rebuild a traditional community reacting to crises under Nation's protection. Hence, Japan is in a transional period of the “socio-political system” being gradually discarded and “Neo-nationalism” being rebuilt lowly.
The principle of tribesmen politics would affect Nationalism process secretly and deeply, therefore, “Mikado” would be probably an important traditional means.
The thesis contains preface, contents, the main body, reference books in both Chinese and Japanese, postscript and so on.
The preface is mainly about the writer's ideas which helps reviewers to grasp key points of the thesis. That the main body consists of three parts, including six chapters, is just like a majestic “Variation on Time” constituting three parts. Each part has two chapters forming a perfect round in accordance with regulations of Japan's political process and the three parts is related together logically and sequentially from ancient, modern, contemporary times to nowadays. In the beginning of the main body is foreword which is mainly about raising issues, defining basic concepts and stating the main idea of thesis and in the end is concluding remarks which is mainly about original ideas of the thesis and prospects of the research topic.
The first part is about ancient times mainly stating how Japan variated from plural system to centralized system and how to variate from “centralized structure” to “dual structure” because of restorstion of tribesmen politics. The writer summarises the characteristics of Japan's unique “historical structure” formed in the course of history and answers questions of how the centralized system was established and failed causing the establishment of “military-bureaucratic system”.
The second part is about modern times mainly stating how the “military-bureaucratic system” collapsed and how centralized structure was established in the third chapter. Beside this, the writer confirms that there exists an innate logical relationship between “historical structure”and “Nationalism” process under outside attacks. In the fourth chapter, the writer states that how Japan gave up Nationalism under the U.S. pressure after collapse of centralized system and returned to pluralism habitually and establishment of “socio-political system” which is astonishingly parallel to the “military-bureaucratic system”.
The third part is about contemporary times mainly stating how post-war Japan's “socio-political system” comes to crisis at the edge of collapse in the process of globlization and there appears a tendency of returing to Nationalism spontaneously in the social world. Additionally, the writer also finds out deep reasons of the political process from the view of variations on “historical structure”. In the sixth chapter, the writer investigates concrete cases by synthesizing forms of the political process to help people under the process more correctly.
The writer is trying to make progress and breakthroug in the following aspects:
1, Analysing Japan's centralized political process starting from origins of history with the point of “macro-history” to find out a political logic chain which can be running through the whole history;
2, Pointing out the conditions of variations on “historical structure” and defining “historical structure” of different stages ( ancient, modern, contemporary times) properly;
3, Making a general survey of Japan's Nationalist political process from a highly abstract theorectical view of “historical structure” which variates automatically under some conditions to verify their innate logical relationship;
4, Finding out essential reasons of present Japan's centralized political process (“Neo-nationalism”) by historical logic and principles of political science to ascertain whether the process is inevitable without the factors of people's will;
5, Making clear that how the culture of traditional tribesmen politics affect Japan's “Nationalism” centralized political process.