世纪之交日本司法改革探索/Reform on Judicial Regulations of Japan in turn-of-the century

2018-09-21 21:00:21

reform 改革 司法 justice Japan



日本战后的第三次司法改革是日本政府为了扭转自90年代以来整个社会所面临的严重危机而实行的一系列改革中的一项重要举措,因此得到国内外各方面的关注。关于这场司法改革的性质,许多日本学者认为是一次“体制改革”或者说是“国体改革”,是将政治改革、经济改革、行政改革有机结合起来的改革,其意义远远超出了单纯的司法改革。
在泡沫经济的热潮逐渐退却之后,从90年代起日本就一直充斥着银行的巨额呆帐、景气的低迷以及事业律的上升等社会问题,近10年来,日本政府先后进行了政治改革、行政改革、金融改革,但效果甚微。小泉纯一郎首相上台后,提出了“改革无禁区”的口号获得普遍的支持,司法改革这个一直以来被认为是法律界内部的冷僻课题一跃成为大众关注的热点,得到了政界、财界、学界的鼎立推动。
日本此次司法制度改革以使提高国民参与统治的自觉性,积极成为承担社会责任的主体,使法律的统治这一理念成为各项改革的核心为基本理念 。进一步发挥司法的作用,使之真正成为支撑“公共性空间”的支柱。在这一思想的指导下,《意见书》具体分了三个部分提出了改革的意见。
首先是制度层面上,分别就民事司法制度、刑事司法制度以及如何与国际接轨等提出了具体的改革意见。其次是人的层面上,提出了为了支持司法制度的改革,法曹应具备怎样的面貌。主要从增加法曹人数、改革法曹的培养制度、改革律师制度、检查制度、法官制度和增进法曹之间相互交流的方式等方面提出了意见。最后是关于进一步促进国民参与司法的一系列建议:包括了建立新的国民参与的刑事诉讼制度、增加司法的方便性和透明度等措施。
基于以上对日本司法改革的分析,我们不得不与之同我国正在进行的司法改革进行比较,这其中存在这许多相通之处和不同之处,在进行了综合分析之后,找到我们可以借鉴的有益之处,对于其中存在的问题,我们也应当认真分析,以达到在实践重尽量避免的目的,这也正是本文的写作目的。



The third justice reform of Japan after the Second World War is one of the important actions in order to solve the severe crisis that the whole society has faced from 90’s. So many attentions have been given to this reform. When discussing the character of this reform, many scholars think that it is a reform related to system or constitution, it is a connection between the reform of politics economy and administration. So its meaning has gone beyond the justice reformation per se.
In 1997 of July, Japan set up the committee for discussion of justice reform in cabinet, and published the “setting statute” which coordinates the question discussed and concludes the “issue”. The issue was investigated and discussed, then came out the “interim report” and was submitted to the cabinet. In 2001, the committee published its advice as the final report, which described the justice structure of Japan in the future.
The basic policy of this reform is to enhance the consciousness of the citizen to be concerned with governing, to be the principal part of the social duty; to make the “rule of law” to be the core of every reform; to bring into the play the function of justice in order to make it the deep-dyed support of the “common space”. In the guidance of this policy, the report elaborates its suggestion from three aspects.
First, in the aspect of system, report gives its reform suggestions from the system of civil justice, criminal justice and how to connect with international justice. Secondly, in the aspect of person, report depicts the appearance that the juridical stuff should have. The idiographic steps include increasing the number of the justice stuff, reforming the training system of the stuff, reforming the lawyer system, the prosecuting attorney system, the judge system and furthering the communication between the stuff. Finally, some suggestions about how to make citizen be concerned with justice are advanced, such as to set up new criminal law that can be easier to make use of, to take steps to increase the convenience and transparence of justice.
At the basic of statement hereinbefore, we should compare the justice reform of Japan with ours. There are many similarities and difference between the two countries. After analyzing synthetically, we can find the availability and use it in our reform. And we must avoid making the same mistake that happened in Japan to the best of our abilities. This is just the motive of writing this thesis.