一二八事变前后《申报》对日态度评析/reviewing the attitude of Shen Bao towards Japan before and af

2018-09-20 09:52:09

national Shen 申报 Japan BaO



九一八事变爆发后,上海掀起了轰轰烈烈的抗日救亡运动。《申报》作为当时上海最有影响力的宣传媒体,在舆论导向方面,起了重要作用。它系统地揭露日本的侵略野心及各种阴谋,鼓励军队与民众踊跃投身到抗日救亡运动中去。随着民族危机的日益深重,《申报》对日态度也日趋强硬,所主张的抗日手段也有所变化。一二八战火点燃后,这种倾向更鲜明地表露出来。《申报》不仅在舆论宣传上进一步发挥作用,提出以民族的革命的武力对付日本帝国主义的侵略,发动国民积极支持前线军队抗战,而且它还成为了支援前线,维护后方秩序的重要阵地。本文在评析一二八事变前后《申报》对日态度的基础上,进而探讨导致《申报》对日态度日益强硬的原因。从当时的客观环境看,具体原因是多方面的,有国际舆论的变化,有民族利益和资产阶级自身利益的促使,也有《申报》自身机构的变动和主持人史量才个人的因素。
《申报》在一二八事变前后始终站在国家与民族的立场上,毫不含糊地表明它的抗日态度。一方面极力敦促宁粤双方合作,一致对外,批评国民政府的不抵抗主义。随着事态的发展,尤其是一二八事变发生后,《申报》对国民政府的批评日益尖锐,直至抨击国民党的专制统治,要求南京政府予国民以抗日民主权利。另一方面,《申报》全力呼吁国民团结抗战,共同挽救民族危机,其有力的抗日宣传对激发国民的抗日意识,增强军民的抗战信心,提高民族的自尊心起了重大的作用。就这两方面意义而言,说《申报》对当时全国尤其是上海的抗日救亡运动发挥了重要的推动作用,是并不夸张的。



After September 18th Incident broke out, Resistance Against Japan and national salvation movement surged in Shanghai.As the most influent media of Shanghai then, Shen Bao exerted important effect in guiding public opinions. It revealed Japanese aggressive ambition and all kinds of conspiracies, encouraging the army and masses to enthusiastically devote into resistance against Japan and national salvation movement. As the national crisis grow extremely serious day by day, Shen Bao’s attitude towards Japan was becoming increasingly tough and the means it advocated to resist against Japan was changing. After Japan enkindled flames of war on January 28th in Shanghai,this inclination was shown more distinctively. Shen Bao not only furthered its effect in conducting propaganda, advancing the idea of taking national and revolutionary force to breast aggression of Japan, and mobilizing the public to support the resistance of front army; but also became the important position, which boosted the battlefront and vindicated home front order. On the basis of reviewing the attitude of Shen Bao towards Japan before and after January 28th Incident, the paper probes into reasons that brought about the increasingly tough attitude. From the point of view of positive environment at that time, the concrete reasons were of many aspects, such as change of international public opinions, impetus of national benefit and benefit of bourgeoisie itself, its organizational change and director Shi liangcai’s personal factors.
Shen Bao claimed its national standpoint before and after January 28th Incident, expressing its anti-Japanese attitude clearly and definitely. On one hand, it did its utmost to urge Nanjing and Guangdong government to cooperate and deal with Japan,criticizing non-resistance of GUO MING TANG government.With the development of situation, esp. after the break out of January 28th Incident, Shen Bao’s criticism on GUO MING TANG government sharpened increasingly, till attacked on autocratic rule of GUO MING TANG and requested Nanjing government to grant the public with democratic right to resist against Japan. On the other hand, Shen Bao spared no effort to appeal the public to unite and resist against Japan and rescue the national crisis together. Its forceful anti-Japanese propaganda has played an important role in arousing public resisting confidence and enhancing sense of national pride. To sum up, it is no exaggeration to say that Shen Bao has significantly pushed forward resistance against Japan and national salvation movement nation-wide, esp. in Shanghai.