冷战后美国媒体对华负面报道的建构主义分析/Constructivism Analysis upon US Media’s Negative Cover towa

2018-09-18 04:03:41

China media interests US 媒体



中文摘要
本论文共分五章,以建构主义结构互动观为理论基础,以1999年炸馆事件和中国威胁论为平台,分析冷战后美国媒体对华负面报道的理论根源和规律。
第一章是全文的起点和铺垫,简要介绍了美国媒体的结构和特点以及冷战后的中美关系结构和美国媒体对华负面报导的特点,提出了美国媒体对华报道欠公正此核心议题,指出美国媒体对华负面报道的原因在于美国媒体与中美关系结构、美国国家利益、意识形态和价值观以及中美两国舆论和民意的建构主义互动。
第二章是案例考量,炸馆事件是1989年后中美关系曲折反复的缩影,体现了美国媒体与美国意识形态和价值观以及两国舆论和民意的互动。一方面,美国意识形态和价值观是美国媒体对华报道的源头,美国媒体的报道进一步将其发扬光大。另一方面,美国媒体在炸馆事件报道中对中国的严重缺乏了解和误解,进一步激发了中国的民族主义情绪。上述复合作用产生的民意影响了美国政府官员和国会议员对中国的观感,最终在其对华决策中得到了潜移默化的体现和反馈。
第三章也是案例考量,分析和论证了“中国威胁论”报道中,美国媒体记者与中美关系结构以及美国国家利益的互动。一方面,美国媒体对美国“领导者”身份和中国“威胁者”身份的认同使“中国威胁论”成了美国媒体的价值观,美国媒体自身在报道中又进一步张扬了“中国威胁论”。另一方面,美国国家利益成为美国媒体对华报道虽未言明,但实际绝对参照的标尺,美国媒体在具体报道中进一步突显了美国国家利益。
第四章是论文核心部分,详细阐述了建构主义结构互动观对美国媒体对华负面报道的理解。国际政治的基本结构是物质性建构,更是社会性建构。观念是确定国家身份的根本因素和国家利益的根源。观念建构了行为体的身份和认同,并与身份和认同一起共同塑造国家利益、意识形态和价值观,同时也不断被它们强化,美国媒体对华负面报道就是这样被构建的。互动是被建构而成的,自我和他者在不断的互动中共同界定了对方的身份。国家利益不是一成不变的,而是行为体与国际社会互动的结果。国家的身份和利益是在国家间的互动中建构的,美国媒体的国家利益观就是观念、身份、认同与利益的共塑与融合的结果。
第五章在前几章论述的基础上,对建构主义结构互动观作了补充和完善。同时提出了三个重要理论命题:一是美国媒体对华负面报道体现了学习进化理论的缺陷。建构主义认为,作为社会实体的国家对它们自身的学习、彼此的学习和与他者有关联行为的学习都是片面的;二是运用观念建构利益的建构主义观详细论证了美国媒体国家利益观的形成;三是美国媒体对华负面报道主要不是文化帝国主义而是文化建构主义,是中美两国历史和文化、民族性格和心理、国家利益和意识形态与价值观以及舆论和民意等因素形成的三层文化建构。中美关系是洛克文化的建构,构建了具有明显洛克文化特征的中美间安全文化。



Abstract
This thesis is divided into five chapters. It takes the interdynamic view of the Constructivism as the theoretical foundation. It regards the event of the embassy bombing in 1999 and “China threat” theory as the platform. It analyses theoretical origin and regularity of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China after the Cold War.
In this thesis, Chapter One is the starting point and the foreshadowing of the full text. It briefly introduces the structure and the characteristics of US Media, the structure of Sino-America relations and the characteristics of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China after the Cold War. It puts forward the center topic that US Media’s cover towards China lacks equity. It also points out that the reason of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China lies in the Constructivism interdynamic of US Media and the structure of Sino-America relations, National Interests of America, American ideology and values, and the public opinion and the will of China and the United States.
Chapter Two is the investigation of the case. The event of the embassy bombing is the epitome of the complicated Sino-America relations since 1989, and embodies the interdynamic between US Media and American ideology and values and two countries' public opinion and the will of the people. On one hand, American ideology and values are the source of US Media’s cover towards China, which are also enhanced by the reports of US Media. On the other hand, US Media seriously lacks understanding and is full of misunderstandings to China in the report of the event of the embassy bombing, which further arouse the nationalism mood of China. The so-called will of American people produced through above-mentioned compound function further influences the impressions to China of American government officials and members of Congress deeply, and finally has gotten imperceptible embodiment and feedback while making policy to China.
Chapter Three is also the investigation of the case. It analyses and proves the interdynamic of US Media’s reporters, the structure of Sino-America relations and the National Interests of America in the report of “China threat” theory. On one hand, US Media’s approval of the identity of the “leader” of U.S.A. and identity of the “menace” of China makes “China threat” theory become the values of US Media. And US Media further exaggerates “China threat” theory in their reports. On the other hand, the National Interests of America become the reference scale of US Media’s cover towards China, which is not publicized but consulted definitely. The US Media further shows the National Interests of America in the concrete reports.
Chapter Four is the key part of this thesis. It demonstrates and elaborates how the interdynamic view of Constructivism understands the problem of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China in detail. The basic structure of international politics is the material construction, and the more important thing is social one. The ideas are the basic factors of the determining the national identity and the origin of the National Interests. The ideas construct the identity and the approval of the actor, and mould the National Interests, ideology and values together with the identity and the approval. The ideas are strengthened by the identity and the approval constantly at the same time. The US Media’s Negative Cover towards China is constructed like this. Interdynamic is formed by constructing. Oneself and another person define the opponent identity together in constant interdynamic. The National Interests are not unalterable, but the result of interdynamic between the actor and international community. National Interests and identities of country are constructed in interdynamic between countries. The view of National Interests of US Media is the result of molding and merging of ideas, identity, approval and interests.
Chapter Five supplements and improves the interdynamic view of Constructivism based on the expositions of the preceding several chapters. This chapter puts forward three important theoretical propositions: first, US media’s Negative cover towards China embodies the defect of the Evolutionary learning theory. Constructivism maintains that it is the one-sided for the countries as the social entity to learn them, learn each other and learn the behavior relating to others. Second, Constructivism proves the formation of the US Media’s view of the National Interests by using the ideas to construct the interests in detail. Third, US media’s Negative Cover towards China is not Culture Imperialism but Culture Constructivism, is a complicated construction of three kinds of culture which are formed by Sino-America history, culture, national personality and psychology, National Interests, ideology, values, the public opinion and the will of the people. Sino-America relations are the construction of Locke’s Culture. All these construct the safe culture between China and the United States with the characteristic of obvious Locke’s Culture.