冷战后美国媒体对华负面报道的建构主义分析/Constructivism Analysis upon US Media’s Negative Cover towa
This thesis is divided into five chapters. It takes the interdynamic view of the Constructivism as the theoretical foundation. It regards the event of the embassy bombing in 1999 and “China threat” theory as the platform. It analyses theoretical origin and regularity of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China after the Cold War.
In this thesis, Chapter One is the starting point and the foreshadowing of the full text. It briefly introduces the structure and the characteristics of US Media, the structure of Sino-America relations and the characteristics of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China after the Cold War. It puts forward the center topic that US Media’s cover towards China lacks equity. It also points out that the reason of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China lies in the Constructivism interdynamic of US Media and the structure of Sino-America relations, National Interests of America, American ideology and values, and the public opinion and the will of China and the United States.
Chapter Two is the investigation of the case. The event of the embassy bombing is the epitome of the complicated Sino-America relations since 1989, and embodies the interdynamic between US Media and American ideology and values and two countries' public opinion and the will of the people. On one hand, American ideology and values are the source of US Media’s cover towards China, which are also enhanced by the reports of US Media. On the other hand, US Media seriously lacks understanding and is full of misunderstandings to China in the report of the event of the embassy bombing, which further arouse the nationalism mood of China. The so-called will of American people produced through above-mentioned compound function further influences the impressions to China of American government officials and members of Congress deeply, and finally has gotten imperceptible embodiment and feedback while making policy to China.
Chapter Three is also the investigation of the case. It analyses and proves the interdynamic of US Media’s reporters, the structure of Sino-America relations and the National Interests of America in the report of “China threat” theory. On one hand, US Media’s approval of the identity of the “leader” of U.S.A. and identity of the “menace” of China makes “China threat” theory become the values of US Media. And US Media further exaggerates “China threat” theory in their reports. On the other hand, the National Interests of America become the reference scale of US Media’s cover towards China, which is not publicized but consulted definitely. The US Media further shows the National Interests of America in the concrete reports.
Chapter Four is the key part of this thesis. It demonstrates and elaborates how the interdynamic view of Constructivism understands the problem of US Media’s Negative Cover towards China in detail. The basic structure of international politics is the material construction, and the more important thing is social one. The ideas are the basic factors of the determining the national identity and the origin of the National Interests. The ideas construct the identity and the approval of the actor, and mould the National Interests, ideology and values together with the identity and the approval. The ideas are strengthened by the identity and the approval constantly at the same time. The US Media’s Negative Cover towards China is constructed like this. Interdynamic is formed by constructing. Oneself and another person define the opponent identity together in constant interdynamic. The National Interests are not unalterable, but the result of interdynamic between the actor and international community. National Interests and identities of country are constructed in interdynamic between countries. The view of National Interests of US Media is the result of molding and merging of ideas, identity, approval and interests.
Chapter Five supplements and improves the interdynamic view of Constructivism based on the expositions of the preceding several chapters. This chapter puts forward three important theoretical propositions: first, US media’s Negative cover towards China embodies the defect of the Evolutionary learning theory. Constructivism maintains that it is the one-sided for the countries as the social entity to learn them, learn each other and learn the behavior relating to others. Second, Constructivism proves the formation of the US Media’s view of the National Interests by using the ideas to construct the interests in detail. Third, US media’s Negative Cover towards China is not Culture Imperialism but Culture Constructivism, is a complicated construction of three kinds of culture which are formed by Sino-America history, culture, national personality and psychology, National Interests, ideology, values, the public opinion and the will of the people. Sino-America relations are the construction of Locke’s Culture. All these construct the safe culture between China and the United States with the characteristic of obvious Locke’s Culture.